Chapman Learning Lab Results. Assessment. What? Why? How?. EnduringUnderstanding . “ Assessment is essential for effective instruction and improved student learning. ”. ‘ I Can ’ Statements for Today .
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“Assessment is essential
for effective instruction
and improved student learning.”
The word asssess is from the Latin assidere,
which means “to sit beside.” This implies that
assessment is something we do “with” and “for”
students, not “to” them. (Green, 1999)
Assessment in education is the process of gathering, interpreting, recording, and using information about pupils’ responses to an educational task. (Harlen, Gipps, Broadfoot, Nuttal,1992)
Some teachers talk about
Some teachers talk about
Assessment serves different purposes at different times depending on the needs
of the instructional process.
“Many studies demonstrate that when formative assessment is used to improve learning during instruction, student achievement improves.”
“The effect of assessment for learning on student achievement is some four to five times greater than the effect of reduced class size.”
“…few interventions in education come close to having the
same level of impact as assessment for learning.” (Stiggins, et al, 2006)
Formative assessment has an “effect size of 0.4 to 0.7”. This is equal to moving a student from the 50th percentile to the 70th percentile. This effect size is larger than most of those found for other educational interventions. Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139-148
“Effective use of questioning arouses curiosity,
Stimulates interest, and motivates students to seek
new information. Students engaged in the questioning
process benefit from the clarification of concepts,
emergence of key points, and enhancement of problem-
solving skills. Using questioning, teachers assess
students’ knowledge, determine needs for focused
reteaching, and encourage students to think at higher
cognitive levels.” (Caram, C. and Davis, P., 2005)
How do you ensure that your questioning techniques
Lead you to assess student knowledge, determine
their needs, and encourage higher levels of thinking?
Summative assessments are designed to determine how much learning has occurred after a significant period of instruction. The data from such assessment is often used to determine report card grades.
The Garden Analogy
If we think of our
children as plants….
Summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply measuring them. It might be interesting to compare and analyze measurements but, in themselves, these do not affect the growth of the plants.
Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the equivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs - directly affecting their growth and strong healthy development.
The summative is in the upper while the formative is in the down side. The analogy is the summative assessment only covers a little part of whole learning process. The formative is based more on students’ level of understanding.
A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and presentation of work rather than quality of learning.
Greater attention given to marking and grading, much of it tending to lower the self esteem of students, rather than providing advice for improvement.
A strong emphasis on comparing students with each other, which sometimes demoralizes the less successful learners.
Where would you place your assessment
practice on the following continuum?
Is the assessment focused on:
Quality of learning
Quantity of work/Presentation
Advice for improvement
How are you bridging summative and formative assessments to positively impact student achievement in your school?
“nice to know”
big idea and
How to group
and being able to
simplify, to solve real
using the idea
“nice to know”
big idea –
Sample of Curricular Priorities
“Where are we headed?” (the student’s Q!)
How will students be “Hooked”?
What opportunities will there be to be equipped
and to Experience and Explore key ideas?
What will provide opportunities to Rethink,
Rehearse, Refine, and Revise?
How will students Evaluate their work?
How will the work be Tailored to individual needs,
How will the work be Organized for maximal
engagement and effectiveness?
Wiggins and McTighe (2002)