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Chapman Learning Lab Results. Assessment. What? Why? How?. EnduringUnderstanding . “ Assessment is essential for effective instruction and improved student learning. ”. ‘ I Can ’ Statements for Today .

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“Assessment is essential

for effective instruction

and improved student learning.”

i can statements for today
‘I Can’Statements for Today
  • I can identify the three types of classroom assessments and determine the purpose of each
  • I can use a variety of assessment methods to gather evidence “For” and “Of” student learning
  • I can implement a variety of formative assessment techniques in my classroom
  • I can apply ‘Backward Design’ best practices
what is assessment
WHAT is assessment?

The word asssess is from the Latin assidere,

which means “to sit beside.” This implies that

assessment is something we do “with” and “for”

students, not “to” them. (Green, 1999)


Assessment in education is the process of gathering, interpreting, recording, and using information about pupils’ responses to an educational task. (Harlen, Gipps, Broadfoot, Nuttal,1992)

why do we assess students
WHYdo we assess students?

Some teachers talk about


Some teachers talk about


why do we assess
WHY do we assess?

Assessment serves different purposes at different times depending on the needs

of the instructional process.

  • It may be used to find out what students already
  • know and can do.
  • It may be used to help students and teachers
  • improve their learning or instruction.
  • It may be used to let students, parents, and
  • administrators know how much students have
  • learned within a prescribed period of time.
assessment process1
Assessment Process




pre assessment diagnostic
  • Often focuses on one area or domain of knowledge
  • Best used at the initial point of instruction to get a
  • glimpse into the learner’s stage of learning
  • Determines the current level of knowledge and skill
  • of a learner
  • Helps teachers determine flexible grouping and
  • should be used regularly
types of pre assessment diagnostic
Types of Pre-Assessment/Diagnostic
  • Writing samples
  • Writing prompts
  • Teacher observations
  • Spelling inventory
  • Entrance/exit slip
  • Pre-test
  • KWL charts
  • Graphic organizer
  • Student discussions
  • Checklist
  • Student products
Reading and Reflecting on the TextFormative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom (Garrison and Ehringhaus)
  • Four A’s Protocol
  • 1. As you read, code the text for the following ideas:
    • An idea with which you Agree (agree with and understand…)
    • An idea with which you can Argue (question or not sure of…)
    • An idea for which you could Advocate (strongly agree with and would highly support…)
    • A idea for which you Aspire (not there yet, but something you feel strongly about working towards…)
    • 2. Discuss your ideas with a partner at your table.
    • 3. Record a “big idea” from this article.
formative assessment research
Formative Assessment - Research

“Many studies demonstrate that when formative assessment is used to improve learning during instruction, student achievement improves.”

“The effect of assessment for learning on student achievement is some four to five times greater than the effect of reduced class size.”

“…few interventions in education come close to having the

same level of impact as assessment for learning.” (Stiggins, et al, 2006)

Formative assessment has an “effect size of 0.4 to 0.7”. This is equal to moving a student from the 50th percentile to the 70th percentile. This effect size is larger than most of those found for other educational interventions. Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139-148

formative assessment
Formative Assessment
  • Assessment for Learning
  • Occurs at varying intervals while learning is still underway to
  • Determine student needs
  • Evaluate the quality of student learning
  • Plan next steps in instruction
  • Provide students feedback they can use to improve the quality of their work
  • Evaluate the quality of the instruction
  • Help students see where they are, where they are going, and how they are progressing
  • It is not about accountability – it is about getting better!
questioning and formative assessment
Questioning and Formative Assessment

“Effective use of questioning arouses curiosity,

Stimulates interest, and motivates students to seek

new information. Students engaged in the questioning

process benefit from the clarification of concepts,

emergence of key points, and enhancement of problem-

solving skills. Using questioning, teachers assess

students’ knowledge, determine needs for focused

reteaching, and encourage students to think at higher

cognitive levels.” (Caram, C. and Davis, P., 2005)

How do you ensure that your questioning techniques

Lead you to assess student knowledge, determine

their needs, and encourage higher levels of thinking?

summative assessment
Summative Assessment
  • Assessment of/after Learning
  • Generally taken by students at the end of a unit or semester to demonstrate the "sum" of what they have or have not learned.
  • Summative assessment methods are the most traditional way of evaluating student work.
  • Tied to grades or some type of measurement
  • "Good summative assessments - tests and other graded evaluations - must be demonstrably reliable, valid, and free of bias" (Angelo and Cross, 1993).
summative assessment1
Summative Assessment

Summative assessments are designed to determine how much learning has occurred after a significant period of instruction. The data from such assessment is often used to determine report card grades.

summative assessments
Summative Assessments
  • State assessments – ARMT+
  • End-of-unit or chapter tests
  • End-of-term or semester exams
  • Scores that are used for accountability for schools (AYP) and students (report card grades)
  • Any assessment that is assigned a grade
formative and summative assessments
Formative and Summative Assessments

The Garden Analogy

If we think of our

children as plants….

Summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply measuring them. It might be interesting to compare and analyze measurements but, in themselves, these do not affect the growth of the plants.

Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the equivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs - directly affecting their growth and strong healthy development.


The summative is in the upper while the formative is in the down side. The analogy is the summative assessment only covers a little part of whole learning process. The formative is based more on students’ level of understanding.

factors inhibiting effective assessment
Factors Inhibiting Effective Assessment

A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and presentation of work rather than quality of learning.

Greater attention given to marking and grading, much of it tending to lower the self esteem of students, rather than providing advice for improvement.

A strong emphasis on comparing students with each other, which sometimes demoralizes the less successful learners.

self evaluation
Self Evaluation

Where would you place your assessment

practice on the following continuum?

Is the assessment focused on:

Quality of learning

Quantity of work/Presentation

Advice for improvement


Identifying individual


Comparing students

How are you bridging summative and formative assessments to positively impact student achievement in your school?

assessment ink think
Assessment ‘Ink Think’
  • SHHH!! This activity is a no-talking activity.
  • We are going to read and think about assessment.
  • You will read and respond to a quote that is already posted
  • on chart paper.
  • We will rotate to different quotes VERY QUICKLY. You
  • may respond to the quote or someone else’s response.
  • GRAB a pencil/pen. DRAW a card from the small deck
  • at your table. MATCH your card to one of the posters,
  • and you may BEGIN reading and responding to your
  • first quote.
  • Remember – No talking, just written responses.
backward design
Backward Design
  • What is Backward Design?
  • An instructional design method which begins with the end in mind—
  • What do students need to know and be able to do?
  • From this end, teachers work backwards to develop assessments and activities to meet this goal
  • “I always know where I am going as I teach, because I have
  • already been there in my planning.”Stacy Irvin , Highland Middle
understanding by design backward design
Understanding by Design - Backward Design
  • The Backward Design approach consists of three general stages:
  • Identify desired results
  • Determine acceptable evidence
  • Plan experiences and instruction
backward design desired results
Backward Design – Desired Results
  • Stage 1 – Identify Desired Results
  • Consider the goal –
  • 1. What should students know, understand, and be able to do?
  • 2. What “enduring” understandings are desired?
  • 3. What questions are worth pursuing?
  • 4. What specific knowledge and skills are needed
  • for effective performance?
  • Wiggins & McTighe 2009
backward design curricular priorities
Backward Design – Curricular Priorities

“nice to know”

foundational knowledge

and skill

big idea and

core tasks


Definition of

distributive property

How to group

& regroup


and being able to

simplify, to solve real


using the idea



“nice to know”

big idea –

enduring understanding

Sample of Curricular Priorities

backward design assessment evidence
Backward Design – Assessment Evidence
  • Stage 2. Determine Acceptable Evidence
  • Consider the evidence of learning (assessment)
  • How will we know students have met the content standards?
  • What will we use as evidence of proficiency?
  • The goal is to obtain valid, reliable, credible, and useful evidence (authentic performance tasks, rubrics (products), and self-assessment).
  • Wiggins & McTighe 2009
backward design instruction
Backward Design – Instruction
  • Stage 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction
  • With goals and assessments in place – time to plan instruction
  • What learning experiences and instruction will promote
  • the desired understanding, knowledge, and skills of Stage 1?
  • How will instruction ensure all students are engaged?
  • Consider the WHERETO elements as guidelines
  • The learning plan is focused on “effective” and “engaging”
  • learning experiences
  • Wiggins & McTighe 2009
backward design whereto
Backward Design - WHERETO








“Where are we headed?” (the student’s Q!)

How will students be “Hooked”?

What opportunities will there be to be equipped

and to Experience and Explore key ideas?

What will provide opportunities to Rethink,

Rehearse, Refine, and Revise?

How will students Evaluate their work?

How will the work be Tailored to individual needs,

interests, styles?

How will the work be Organized for maximal

engagement and effectiveness?

Wiggins and McTighe (2002)

summary research on effective assessment
Summary - Research on Effective Assessment
  • Black and William’s (1998) research indicates that improving
  • student learning through assessment depends on five factors.
  • Providing effective feedback to students
  • The active involvement of students in their own learning
  • Adjusting teaching to take account of the results of
  • assessment
  • Recognizing the profound influence of assessment on
  • students’ motivation and self-esteem – both crucial
  • influences on learning
  • The need for students to be able to assess themselves
  • and understand how to improve
exit writing time to reflect
EXIT WRITING: Time to Reflect
  • Spend a few moments reflecting on today….
  • What was your most significant learning?
  • What specific actions do you plan to take?
  • What results would you like to see from
  • those actions?
  • How will you assess the effectiveness of
  • these actions?