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Estimation of Emissions Reductions in CDM Projects. Dr. Oscar Coto II National CDM Workshop Belize August 2011. Topics. CDM Methodologies CDM Tools and guidances Sources of information Baseline , project and leakage emissions Expected project emissions reductions.

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Dr. Oscar Coto II National CDM Workshop Belize August 2011

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Estimation of Emissions Reductions in CDM Projects

Dr. Oscar Coto

II National CDM Workshop

Belize

August 2011


Topics

  • CDM Methodologies

  • CDM Tools and guidances

  • Sources of information

  • Baseline, project and leakage emissions

  • Expected project emissions reductions


Estimation of emissions reductions in the CDM

  • Baseline emissions

  • Project emissions

  • Emissions due to leakage

Emissions reductions = a – (b + c)


Inputs

  • CDM applicable methodology

  • Project boundaries

  • Sources and types of GHG

  • Tools and guidances of the CDM

  • IPCC estimative procedures

  • Specific informations

  • Etc.


Methodologies are vital in the CDM

  • Compliance with CDM modalities and procedures

  • Any CDM project must be eligible and should apply an approved baseline and monitoring methodology

  • Approval can be requested for a new methodology but specific procedures apply

  • Matching project activity and methodology is important


¿Why methodologies?

  • A matter of regulatory principles

  • Important for replicability and conformance with the UNFCCC and KP principles

  • Standarization and guidance


Types of CDM methodologies

  • Largescale

  • Consolidaded methodologies

  • Small scale methodologies


Status of methodologies

  • Large scale: 77

  • Consolidated + 18

  • Large scale A/R: 11

  • Consolidated A/R: 2

  • Small scale: 71 in 3 groups (energy generation, energy efficiency, other types)

  • Small scale A/R: 7

  • Constant evolution on applicable versions


Taxonomy of a methodology

  • I. Sources and applicability: approach, definitions, aplicability

  • II. Baseline methodology: boundaries, estimative procedures, definition of baseline, emissions by source, etc.

  • III. Monitoring methodology: data and parameters, descriptions, QC/QA procedures, plans, etc.

  • IV. References and other information


Small scale methodology (SSC)

  • Technology/ measures applicable

  • Frontiers

  • Baseline

  • Project emissions

  • Leakage

  • Emissions reductions

  • Monitoring

  • Considerations if the project is a part of a programe of activities


Project boundaries

  • Control principle

  • Project contextualization, identification of relevant sources and types of GHGs


Project in the african palm industry


Capture and destruction of methane in waste water in the palm oil industry


Sugar cogeneration project

  • Site of generation in the mill

  • Biomass transport to site

  • Interconnected generation (in case of exports of electricity to a

  • Any site if there was natural decay or decomposition of biomass in the baseline


CDM Tools

  • Acompanny the methodologies and detail specific procedures and approaches for estimations of emissions

  • 11 tools for large scale projects

  • 11 tools, 4guidances for small scale projects

  • 14 tools for large scale and SSC A/R projects


  • Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality Version 5.2 EB 39 annex 10

  • Combined tool to identify the baseline scenario and demonstrate additionality Version 2.2 EB 28 annex 14 T

  • Tool to calculate project or leakage CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion Version 2 EB 41 annex 11

  • Tool to determine methane emissions avoided from disposal of waste at a solid waste disposal site Version 5 EB 55 annex 18

  • Tool to calculate baseline, project and/or leakage emissions from electricity consumption Version 1 EB 39 annex 7

  • Tool to determine project emissions from flaring gases containing methane Version 1 EB 28 annex 13

  • Tool to calculate the emission factor for an electricity system Version 2 EB 50 annex 14

  • Tool to determine the mass flow of a greenhouse gas in a gaseous stream Version 1 EB 47 annex 10

  • Tool to determine the baseline efficiency of thermal or electric energy generation systems Version 1 EB 48 annex 12

  • Tool to determine the remaining lifetime of equipment Version 1 EB 50 annex 15


Emissions are related to …

  • Types and sources of GHG and the associated significance to the specific conditions

  • Delimitation of the project boundaries

  • Relevant informations on the specific conditions that may apply to the process or project under consideration


Emissions sources could be …

  • Emissions due to the generation of electricity in a power grid

  • Emissions due to the decomposition of solid residues in a landfill

  • Emissions due to the burning at open sky of biomass residues

  • Etc.


Information could come from different sources

  • “Default” factors

  • Specific project factors

  • Results from simulations, expert opinions, etc

  • Representative factors from similar technologies applicable to the specific project conditions

    In case of doubt … transparency and conservadurism

    EB tends to specify conditions for information traceability in the documentation required


IPCC 2006 Guidelines are important sources of information

V1: General Guidance and Reporting

V2: Energy

V3: Industrial Processes and Product Use

V4: Agriculture, Forestry and other Land Use

V5: Waste

Available at www.ipcc.ch


Fuel Information

  • IPCC default values

  • Country specific

  • In case country specific information is available, it is preferable to use it for the purpose of PDD estimations


Emissions associated to combustion of fossil fuels


Emissions associated to electricity consumption

  • Product of the electricity consumed or saved multlied by an emission factor related to the source of electricity in the baseline


Emission factor for an electricity grid

  • Remote systems

  • Interconnected systems

  • Represented by ton CO2 / MWh generated

  • Tools are available for its calculation


Information required for grid emission factors

General description of the sector

Types of installed capacity

Fuel consumptions by generation sources

Relevant context informations

Dispatch data

Etc.


Emission factor for grids in the region


What about Belize?


Estimating Emissions Reductions involves the consideration of …

  • Baseline emissions

  • Project activity emissions

  • Emissions due to leakage


Emissions

Base Line Scenario

Project Scenario

Time

Emissions in the baseline and project scenarios


Baseline scenario

Leakage due to the project

Project scenario

Leakage

Emissions that occur outside the project boundaries for which the project is responsible

Project


Remembering the PDD


At the PDD level

  • Baseline information has to be included in Annex 3

  • Project related emissions information has to be included in a section of the PDD


The net emissions reductions due to the CDM project activity are equal to

Baseline emissions –

Project activity emissions –

Emissions due to leakage


Now you know how to do it !

Select methodology

  • Draw and understand the project boundaries

  • Define sources and types of GHG to consider

  • Construct a tableof emissions and equations/procedures

  • Construct your variable definitions and values

  • Estimate the relevant emissions due to baseline, project and leakage


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