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Second Language Acquisition and Oral Language Development. Educ 388 Language Policies and Practices Jan. 31, 2008. Objectives. STUDENTS WILL be able to … . 1. State CELDT proficiency levels; identify at least 1-2 characteristics of each

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Second language acquisition and oral language development

Second Language Acquisition and Oral Language Development

Educ 388

Language Policies and Practices

Jan. 31, 2008


Objectives
Objectives

STUDENTS WILL be able to….

1. State CELDT proficiency levels; identify at least 1-2 characteristics of each

2. State how expectations and prompts can be adjusted according to proficiency levels

3. State 4-5 key issues in second language acquisition and how they might be useful in supporting English Language Development.

4. State the role of the state English Language Development Standards and how they came about in relation to the English Language Arts Standards.

5. Use information from the lecture to help complete Assignment #2


Today s line up
Today’s line-up…

Claude….

Second language development levels (SOLOM, CELDT)

Adjusting questioning strategies by levels

Language development and reading development

Kenji…

(wrap up some topics from last week)

Language instruction

California ELD standards

ELD standards and the policy context


Second language development
Second language development

  • 4 levels (‘natural approach’ cartoons)

  • Cartoons provide global view

  • SOLOM provides analytical view of 5 dimensions or aspects of language:


Debrief student eld level
Debrief student ELD level

  • Use SOLOM, notes from your interview

  • Discuss with partner your initial assessment student’s ELD level

  • Give reasons for your assessment

  • Be prepared to share out with class


California english language development test celdt
California English Language Development Test (CELDT)

  • Standardized test given to all students who speak a language other than English at home

  • Must be administered within 30 days of first enrollment in a CA school (‘site coordinator’)

  • K-1 oral language only; gr 2 & up, reading and writing added

  • Required for accountability purposes (redesignation and yearly progress)


Celdt levels map on to eld levels
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels

(see CELDT Proficiency Level Descriptions)



Celdt levels map on to eld levels sort of1
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels… sort of

4. Early Advanced


Celdt levels map on to eld levels sort of2
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels… sort of

4. Early Advanced



Celdt levels map on to eld levels sort of4
CELDT levels map on to ELD levels… sort of

early advanced?

4. Early Advanced



Comparing eld celdt
Comparing ELD & CELDT

  • Look at ELD levels (cartoons) and compare to CELDT (written) levels

  • Discuss with your table 3 ways in which they are different

  • Which scheme do you think is more useful?

  • Be prepared to share out with class


So what
So WHAT?

  • Planning instruction

  • Prompts, questions to students

  • Realistic expectations (careful…..)


Questions for your student
Questions for your student

  • Think of the student you assessed

  • Think of a lesson you might teach to the student (and classmates)

  • Use ‘QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES’ and write down prompts, questions you would use

  • Share with partner


Eld and reading development
ELD and Reading Development

  • ELD and content SIMULTANEOUSLY

  • The case of reading development

  • Look at reading development and CELDT levels side by side

  • What will be relatively easier at Stage 1?

  • What gets harder as reading development progresses?


As reading develops
As reading develops….

  • Vocabulary and background knowledge become increasingly important

  • Building vocab and BK can’t wait until 4th grade… gaps just get larger

  • Teach academic content, K-12, both for content and for literacy

  • Students can read orally (important!) but lack the vocab and BK to really deal with content as they go up the grades.


Relationship between eld and reading development
Relationship between ELD and reading development

What, if anything, do you think is important about this knowledge for you as a teacher?




Variability is a characteristic of language acquisition and learning appears gradual in most cases
Variability is a characteristic of language acquisition, and learning appears gradual in most cases.

http://www.stanford.edu/~hakuta/www/research/publications/(1976)%20-%20A%20CASE%20STUDY%20OF%20A%20JAPANESE%20CHILD%20LEARNING%20ENGLISH%20A.pdf


It can take a few years despite the will of politicians

It can take a few years, despite the will of politicians! learning appears gradual in most cases.

Claiborne Pell

Ron Unz


It takes 4-7 years to develop English proficiency, even under good circumstances.

http://www.stanford.edu/~hakuta/www/research/publications/(2000)%20-%20HOW%20LONG%20DOES%20IT%20TAKE%20ENGLISH%20LEARNERS%20TO%20ATTAIN%20PR.pdf


L2 concepts
L2 Concepts under good circumstances.

  • Language transfer and interference

  • Errors vs. mistakes

  • Learning vs. acquisition

  • Metalinguistic awareness

  • Affective filter

  • Semilingualism vs. bilingualism


Language transfer and interference
Language transfer and interference under good circumstances.

  • Pathway of second language acquisition is in part dependent on similiarities and differences between L1 and L2.


Errors vs mistakes
Errors vs. mistakes under good circumstances.

  • Errors are systematic and come from developmental causes, e.g., “He wented.”

  • Errors are diagnostic of the developmental system, whereas mistakes are the result of sloppiness / fatigue and are random.


Learning vs acquisition and metalinguistic awareness
Learning vs. acquisition under good circumstances.and Metalinguistic Awareness

  • According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'.

  • The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act.

  • The 'learned system' or 'learning' is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules. According to Krashen 'learning' is less important than 'acquisition'.

http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html


Affective filter
Affective filter under good circumstances.

  • Krashen's view that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety.

http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html


Vocabulary
Vocabulary under good circumstances.

Visual Thesaurus

http://www.visualthesaurus.com/


Coxhead s advice
Coxhead’s Advice under good circumstances.

  • Learners should read academic texts and listen to academic lectures and discussions.  Where possible, the written and spoken texts should not be too difficult for learners, with no more than about 5% of the running words in the texts being new words for the learners.

  • Learners should have the chance to speak in academic discussion and write academic texts using academic vocabulary.

  • Learners should directly study words from the list using word cards and doing intensive study of short academic texts.

Source: Averil Coxhead: http://www.vuw.ac.nz/lals/research/awl/awlinfo.html


Other advice
Other advice under good circumstances.

  • Paraphrase when you can, but not to excess.

  • Notice, and clarify, idiomatic expressions.

  • Native language is OK.

  • Point out cognates when you can.

  • Maintain vocabulary lists for the class, and each student for his/herself.

  • Be aware of cognitive and background knowledge constraints on vocabulary reference.


Get me the silox. under good circumstances.


Get me the silox. under good circumstances.


Draw a circle around the silox. under good circumstances.


Draw a circle around Silox. under good circumstances.


Some ellis observations
Some Ellis Observations under good circumstances.

  • Direct grammar instruction has limited impact on oral language production.

  • Test-like performance can be different from spontaneous oral language production.

  • Groupwork can be helpful – quality of groupwork is very important.


Ellis principles
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles1
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles2
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles3
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles4
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles5
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles6
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles7
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles8
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Ellis principles9
Ellis Principles under good circumstances.

  • Mix of formulaic expressions and rule-based competence.

  • Predominance of meaning, but form is also important.

  • Implicit knowledge of L2 is important, but explicit knowledge is also important.

  • Learners have a built-in syllabus

  • Extensive L2 input is important.

  • Opportunities for output and interaction are important.

  • Opportunities to interact in L2 is important.

  • Individual differences of learners matters.

  • Linguistic knowledge occurs in different levels.


Components of eld standards
Components of ELD Standards under good circumstances.

  • Listening and Speaking

  • Reading

    • Word analysis

    • Fluency and systematic vocabulary development

    • Reading comprehension

    • Literary response and analysis

  • Writing

    • Strategies and applications

    • English language conventions


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