Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia
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PRACTICAL PEARLS FOR NEARLY PAINLESS LOCAL ANESTHESIA. JOHN K. GEISSE, MD SOLANO DERMATOLOGY ASSOCIATES 2290 SACRAMENTO STREET VALLEJO, CA 94590 CLINICAL PROFESSOR DEPARTMENTS OF DERMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CA, SAN FRANCISCO.

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PRACTICAL PEARLS FOR NEARLY PAINLESS LOCAL ANESTHESIA

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Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia

PRACTICAL PEARLS FOR NEARLY PAINLESS LOCAL ANESTHESIA

JOHN K. GEISSE, MD

SOLANO DERMATOLOGY ASSOCIATES

2290 SACRAMENTO STREET

VALLEJO, CA 94590

CLINICAL PROFESSOR

DEPARTMENTS OF DERMATOLOGY

AND PATHOLOGY

UNIVERSITY OF CA, SAN FRANCISCO


Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia1

PRACTICAL PEARLS FOR NEARLY PAINLESS LOCAL ANESTHESIA

1. PREMEDICATION:

A.Anxiety

1. Benzodiazepines: PO or sublingual

* IV precautions with sublingual

B.Narcotics

1. PO Codeine/hydrocodone acetaminophen compounds

2. IM narcotics need IV precautions

a. Naloxone, epinephrine, and crash cart


Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia

C. Antiemetics

1. PO or IM hydroxyzine no longer available have not found a substitute yet

D. VALIUM 5-10 MG SL PLUS RARELY DEMEROL 50-100 MG FOR PROLONGED ORDIFFICULT CASES.


Ii topical anesthetics

II. TOPICAL ANESTHETICS

A.Benzocaine compounds: Intraoral or mucosal

1. Pina Colada

B.Lidocaine gels and EMLA

1. Prior to needle puncture, laser therapy and dermabrasion.


Iii local anesthesia

III. Local Anesthesia

A. Lidocaine +/- epinephrine.

1. Buffered: 1 part sodium bicarbonate (8.4% or

1 mEq/ml) to 9 (10) parts 1% lidocaine with

epinephrine 1:200,000.

  • Longer acting anesthetics relative to lidocaine:

    1. Mepivacaine: faster, longer, and safer. $$

    2. Prilocaine: slow, methemogobinemia.

    3. Bupivacaine: slower, longer (up to 4 hr. block).

    4. Etidocaine: ideal, better than bupivacaine. $$


Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia

  • Toxicity:

    1. Allergy; very rare to amides; usu vasovagal

    2. Systemic side effects: CNS, cardiovascular,

    pregnancy-toxicity to fetus

    3. Maximum recommended dosages:

    a. Lidocaine with epinephrine:

    Adults; 7.5 mg/kg, 500 mg total

    (50 ml of 1% with epi; only 25ml without epi)

    Children; 1.5-2.5 mg/kg (0.5% recommended)

    4. Epinephrine and Beta Blockers; dilute to

    1:200,000 (hypertensive crisis, headache)

    . Most “toxicity” is from the epinephrine effect


Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia

REMEMBER: LIDOCAINE TOXICITY IS NOT LINEARLY DOSE RELATED

1. E.G. 2% lidocaine has greater toxicity than 1% without significantly greater efficacy (50ML 1% Lido= 12ML 2% Lido)

  • 2% for blocks only

  • 0.5% LIDO FOR CHILDREN OR LARGE VOLUMES

    4. Tumescent anesthesia has different parameters; absorption peak 12hrs


Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia

D. Alternatives:

1. Diphenhydramine (12.5-5-25mg/ml) with

epinephrine 1; 200,000.

a. sedation

2. Normal Saline preserved with benzyl alcohol

a. can add epi for prolonged effect

3. Refrigerant sprays and ice cubes.


Iv injection technique

IV. INJECTION TECHNIQUE

A. Regional Blocks:

1. Trigeminal

2. Digital: Beware of vascular compromise,

metacarpal method preferred

B. Subcutaneous vs. Intradermal injection:

* AVOID:

Hurried anxiety producing behavior;

Sudden needle sticks (the “stab” technique);

Forceful or rapid tissue infiltration causing tissue distension, especially with intradermal injection;

Injection of plantar/palmer surfaces (use blocks and lateral approaches);

Avoid hitting bone with the needle


Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia

A. “Painless Anesthesia”

1. 30 gauge needles; 1 inch long

2. Injection through cutaneous pores

3. Slow, careful infiltration; infiltrate as one

advances the needle slowly, subq first

4. Distraction: massage or vibration;

an assistant who “hand holds” and chats with the patient

5. Buffered lidocaine and freshly mixed

epinephrine

6. Reinject in anesthetized areas; minimize sticks


Practical pearls for nearly painless local anesthesia

* Painful experiences and poor or prominent surgical scars are the two most memorable aspects of a surgical procedure for a patient. If one can provide a nearly painless surgical procedure without the use of general anesthesia than you have won half the battle.


References

References

1.Auletta MJ, Grekin RC: Local Anesthesia For Dermatologic Surgery. From the series

Practical Manuals In Dermatologic Surgery, Churchill Livingstone, 1990.

2. Grekin RC, Auletta MJ: Local Anesthesia in Dermatologic Surgery. J AM Acad Deramtol

19:599, 1988.

3.McKay W, et al: Sodium bicarbonate attenuates pain on skin infiltration with lidocaine

with or without epinephrine. Anesthesia Analogues pp. 572-574, 1987.

4.Stewart JH, et al: Neutralized Lidocaine with epinephrine for local anesthesia. J

Dermatol Surg Oncol 15:10, 1989

5.Ashinoff R, Geronemus RG: Effect of the topical anesthetic EMLA on the Efficacy of

pulsed dye laser treatment of port-wine stains. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 16:11, 1990.

6.Lahteenmaki T, et al: Topical analgesia for the cutting of split-skin grafts: a multicenter comparison of two doses of a lidocaine/prilocaine cream. Plastic and Reconstr Surg 82:3, 1988.

7.Physicians Desk Reference, 45th edition, 1991.

8.Bennett RG: Fundamentals of Cutaneous Surgery, C.V. Mosby Company, 1988.

9.Larson PO, et al: Stability of Buffered Lidocaine and Epinephrine Used for Local

Anesthesia. J Dermatol Surg. Oncol 1991; 17:411-414.


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