Medical terminology. Part 2. The circulatory system. Constructed medical terms:.
The circulatory system
Many medical terms are ‘constructed’ from a combination of word parts… prefixes, Greek or Roman root words, and suffixes. Determine the meaning of the whole word by first deciphering the meaning of the suffix, then the prefix, and finally the root word. Then combine the 3 parts.
MICRO / SCOP / IC
Prefix meaning ‘small’ / root word meaning ‘viewing instrument’ / suffix meaning ‘pertaining to’
When you start with a root word and add a suffix that starts with a consonant OR another root word, then you have to connect the two word parts with a vowel. This is called a ‘combining vowel’, and is usually an ‘o, i, or e’.
HEM / O / PHILIA
Root word meaning ‘blood’ / combining vowel / suffix meaning ‘love of’
If a medical term is not constructed from a combination of word parts, then it is called ‘nonconstructed’. These are words derived from other languages, words derived from names of people, from initials that form acronyms, or from abbreviations. To learn the meanings of nonconstructed terms, you must simply commit them to memory.
The term ‘pasteurize’ refers to the process of heating milk to a temperature that kills harmful microorganisms. The term is derived from the name of its inventor… Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).
Angiospasm (AN jee oh spazm)
Abnormal muscular contractions of the smooth muscles that form the blood vessel walls.
Angiostenosis (an jee oh sten OH siss)
Narrowing of a blood vessel, which in turn causes a reduction of blood flow to the body. This is one sign of cardiovascular disease.
Cyanosis (sigh ah NOH siss)
A blue tinge of the skin and mucous membranes, usually caused by oxygen deficiency in the tissue. This may be a sign of cardiovascular disease.
Aneurysm (AN yoo rism) This is a non-constructed word. It is an abnormal bulging of an arterial wall.
An aneurysm may be a congenital defect (present at birth) or a weakness that has formed over time. If an aneurysm bursts, it can be life-threatening.
Angiocarditis (An jee oh kar DYE tiss) An inflammation of the heart and blood vessels. It is often the result of a widespread bacterial infection.
Angioma (an jee OH mah) This is a term that describes a tumor arising from a blood vessel. It forms a benign mass or coloring of the skin.
It may be called an hemangioma (heh MAN jee OH mah). A mass may restrict the flow of blood OR a red/purple birthmark on the skin does not restrict blood flow.
Former Soviet President Gorbachev has a port wine stain on the forehead.
Aortitis (ay or TYE tiss) Inflammation of the aorta, often caused by a bacterial infection.
Illustration of normal aorta on the left; inflamed on the right.
Arteriopathy (ahr tee ree AH path ee) This is a general term referring to any disease of the arteries.
Arteriosclerosis (ahr tee ree oh skleh ROH siss)
This is commonly called ‘hardening of the arteries’. The artery walls may become thickened and lose their elasticity with age, reducing blood flow.
Atherosclerosis (ATH er oh skleh ROH siss) This is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, where a fatty plaque forms on the inner walls of the artery. This plaque may reduce or block the flow of blood; it can be caused by too much cholesterol in the diet.
Coronary Occlusion (ah CLUE zhun) This is a general term for blockage in an artery.
Embolism (EM boh lizm) This is a blockage in an artery that forms when a blood clot or air bubble or fat particle moves through the circulatory system. The actual clot or particle or bubble is called an ‘embolus’.
Hemorrhoids (HEM oh roydz) These are dilated veins in the anal area. They are painful and cause itching.
People who are seated a lot, such as truck drivers and secretaries, and people who lift heavy weights or jump up and down, such as an athlete, are at risk.
Hypertension (HIGH per TEN shun) Persistently high blood pressure.
Essential hypertension is not traceable to a single cause; secondary hypertension is caused by another disease.
Hypotension (HIGH poh TEN shun) Persistently low blood pressure.
Ischemia (iss KEE mee ah) An abnormally low flow of blood to the tissues, which may be congenital or caused by an occlusion.
At site of IV infusion
Phlebitis (fleh BYE tiss) An inflammation of a vein.
Varicosis (vair ih KOH siss) An abnormally dilated vein. When blood flow valves do not work correctly, blood pools due to gravitational forces, a varicose vein results.
Angiography (AN jee OG rah fee)
A contrast medium is introduced into the bloodstream, and images called an ‘angiogram’ are taken by X-ray, MRI, or CAT scan. It is a diagnostic procedure.
Angioplasty (AN jee oh plass tee)
This is the surgical repair of a blood vessel. A balloon angioplasty involves the insertion and inflation of a balloon to unblock a vessel. In laser angioplasty a laser beam is used to unblock an artery.
An artificial ‘spacer’ or ‘form’ that is used to hold open a vessel or prevent closure of an artery after angioplasty.
(END ahr teh REK toh mee)
The surgical removal of the inner lining of an artery to remove fatty plaque.
Artery opened to expose the white fatty plaque to be removed.
Sphygmomanometry (SFIG moh mah NOM eh tree)
The process of measuring arterial blood pressure using an instument called a sphygmomanometer. While it is replaced by digital technology in many cases, technology sometimes fails.
Phlebectomy (fleh BEK toh mee)
The surgical removal of a vein.
Phlebotomy (fleh BOT toh mee)
Puncturing a vein to remove blood or for a donation of blood. Often called venipuncture. A healthcare professional who performs this procedure is called a phlebotomist.
CAD Coronary Artery Disease
A general term for any disease that affects the coronary arteries supplying the heart with blood.
Cross-section of coronary artery with plaque buildup.
CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
The use of manual chest compressions to maintain circulation and artificial ventilation to restore breathing in order to revive a patient.
CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Removing a blood vessel from one part of the body and inserting it in place of a blocked artery in another part of the body in order to restore circulation.
Medical terminology system…
The circulatory system