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Destruction of the Twin Towers. The Event. AA-11 & UA175 Flight Paths. The Event. Alleged flight paths (lost to radar for part of trip). The Event. AA-11 Impact on WTC-1. The Event. One landing gear. The Event. UA-175 Impact on WTC-2. The Event. Landing gear, engine, fuselage section.

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Destruction of the Twin Towers

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Destruction of the twin towers

Destructionof the Twin Towers


The event

The Event


The event1

AA-11 & UA175 Flight Paths

The Event

Alleged flight paths (lost to radar for part of trip)


The event2

The Event


The event3

AA-11 Impact on WTC-1

The Event

One landing gear


The event4

The Event


The event5

UA-175 Impact on WTC-2

The Event

Landing gear, engine, fuselage section


The stage

The Stage


World trade center

The Buildings: Layout

World Trade Center

Building 7

N

North Tower

South Tower


World trade center1

The Buildings: Heights

World Trade Center

N

110 stories

47 stories


Wtc 1 2 construction

Columns

WTC 1-2 Construction

47 central core columns, 244 perimeter columns


Wtc 1 2 construction1

in Progress

WTC 1-2 Construction

Basement, first 10 floors of WTC1


Wtc 1 2 construction2

47 Central Core Columns

WTC 1-2 Construction

14”x36” near bottom, various smaller forms near top


Wtc 1 2 construction3

244 Perimeter Columns

WTC 1-2 Construction

Truss mounting points

Diagonal- brace mounting points

3-column-3-floor assemblies alternating across 3 floors, connected by welded/bolted spandrel plates


Wtc 1 2 destruction features

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Perimeter cross-link strength

Acting like a Roman arch over the hole


Wtc 1 2 construction4

Floor Support Trusses

WTC 1-2 Construction


Wtc 1 2 construction5

Floor Support Trusses

WTC 1-2 Construction

Perimeter column

loops stick up into grooves on metal deck, act as shear studs

Core column

Main trusses: these were double


Wtc 1 2 construction6

Floor Support Trusses

WTC 1-2 Construction

Transverse truss: at right angles to main trusses


Wtc 1 2 construction7

“Hat” Truss

WTC 1-2 Construction

Floors 106-110:

Helps spread stress forces within core and between core and perimeter, and supports communications tower on top


The reports

The Reports


The reports1

The Reports

  • FEMA -- 2002

  • 9/11 Commission -- 2004

  • NIST: National Institute of Science and Technology -- 2005


Fema investigation report

FEMA Investigation/Report

  • Carried out by “volunteers” from the American Society of Civil Engineers

  • Bush administration agency (Katrina)

  • Headed by man who headed Okla.City bombing study

  • No “authority to impound pieces of steel before they were recycled”

  • No subpoena powers -- couldn’t get blueprints

  • “The ‘official investigation’ blessed by FEMA ... is a half-baked farce that may already have been commandeered by political forces whose primary interests, to put it mildly, lie far afield of full disclosure” -- Fire Engineering Magazine

  • Basic theory: Impact and fire caused a “pancake” collapse

  • Report+comment:http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/official/fema.html


Fema investigation report1

FEMA Investigation/Report

Conclusion: Pancaking

(PBS)


9 11 commission report

9/11 Commission Report

  • Chairmen: "fullest possible account of the events surrounding 9/11.”

  • Provided intensely detailed description of situation in buildings and actions of emergency personnel

  • Mentioned that the buildings collapsed (period)


Nist report

NIST Report


Problems with nist report

Problems with NIST Report

  • Institutional -- NIST was politicized

  • Coverage -- Only covered what they claim happened up until the beginning of “collapse;” virtually no analysis of what “inevitably” then happened -- wasn’t part of their assignment

  • Evidence -- Used questionable computer model, used little (and ignored) real evidence

  • Reality -- the “collapse” displayed too many features inconsistent with a gravity-driven model.


Destruction of the twin towers

NIST Problems:Institutional

NIST had become “fully hijacked from the scientific into the political realm...scientists lost scientific independence and became little more than ‘hired guns.’...By 2001, everyone in NIST leadership had been trained to pay close heed to political pressures... Everything that came from the hired guns was by then routinely filtered through the front office and assessed for political implications before being released,” and was also scrutinized by the NSA, OMB, and the Commerce Department headquarters. -- whistleblower (former NIST employee)


So what did nist say

So, what did NIST say?


Nist s approach

NIST’s approach

A Computer Model

(ignored much physical evidence)


Nist computer model approach

NIST: Computer model approach

  • Set up three scenarios with assumptions representing different degrees of damage

  • See which one creates collapse

  • If none do, tweak the worst one further and divorce it further from empirical evidence by denigrating that evidence.

  • Example: South damage range was 3-10 damaged columns, only using 10 did job


Nist computer model approach1

NIST: Computer model approach

  • "Upon a preliminary examination of the middle case, it became clear that the towers would likely remain standing...[so] the most severe case ... was used for the global analysis of each tower.”-- NIST Final Report

  • "To the extent the [severe-case] simulations deviated from the photographic evidence or eyewitness reports, the investigators adjusted the input.” -- NIST


Nist computer model approach2

NIST: Computer model approach

  • "[A] fundamental problem with using computer simulation is the overwhelming temptation to manipulate the input data until one achieves the desired results. Thus what appears to be a conclusion is actually a premise... NIST tweaked the input and the buildings feel down”-- architect Eric Douglas


Nist s sequence

NIST’s sequence

  • Plane impact

    • Severed some core columns

    • Removed fireproofing from most core columns and much of floor-supporting trusses

  • Fires created tremendous heat

    • weakened core columns

    • Caused floor trusses to weaken and sag, pulling in the perimeter columns, reducing peripheral support

  • Global collapse commenced

    • Top of tower above damage acted as pile driver

    • Floors below couldn’t resist

    • Out of thousands of pages, they only devoted a paragraph to this, with no indication of analysis of the process


Nist severed core columns

NIST: Severed Core Columns

  • North: 6 severed, South: 10 -- but:

    • North hit higher, where columns weaker

    • Only engines capable of such damage, but North hit head on, South off to side, so should have been other way around

  • There is no actual visual record

    • All NIST has is a computer model

    • Only 256 pieces of steel out of thousands saved


Nist about that steel

NIST: About that steel...

  • NIST, 2003: "adequate for purposes of the Investigation. Regions of impact and fire damage were emphasized in the selection of steel for the Investigation.”andsteel analysis "includes...estimating the maximum temperature reached by available steel."BUT

  • NIST, 2005: Steel is merely “sufficient for determining quality and mechanical properties”


Nist fire weakens steel

NIST: Fire weakens steel

Fire Retardant

  • Fire retardant coating good for 2 hours

  • So have to assume massive dislodging of fire retardant by impact.

  • NIST: of 47 core columns, FR dislodged on 43 in North, 39 in South. How know?

  • No evidence, just 15 shotgun blasts at flat plates (not beams) in a plywood box.


Nist fire weakens steel1

NIST: Fire weakens steel

Temperature Behavior

  • Building is an interconnected grid of thousands of tons of steel

  • Steel conducts heat (though not ideal)

  • Therefore, building sucks heat away from any place that has heat locally applied to it

  • Therefore, it takes a LONG time before steel temperature reaches local air temperature.

  • But jet fuel was consumed within 15 minutes, and office fires tend to burn out in any one area after about 20 minutes.


Nist fire weakens steel2

NIST: Fire weakens steel

Temperature claims

  • Model: 1000°C only 15-20 mins in any one place, otherwise 500°C

  • NIST: physical evidence indicates max temp of any steel (not necessarily columns) was 600°C

  • NIST: examination of perimeter steel indicated max was 250°C

  • Core had less oxygen than perimeter, so likely not as hot, and no evidence that it actually did get that hot

  • Structural steel begins to soften at 425°C

  • Kinda problematic for a claim of weakened columns


Nist fire weakens steel3

NIST: Fire weakens steel

Floor trusses sag

  • Basic idea (I’ve seen two quoted)

    • Sagging pulls in the perimeter columns

    • Sagging doesn’t pull in the perimeter columns, but when they cool and contract, that happens

  • Were they trusses or girders?

http://911review.org/Wget/www.nerdcities.com/guardian/wtc/they-lied-about-trusses.htm


Nist fire weakens steel4

NIST: Fire weakens steel

Floor trusses sag


Nist fire weakens steel5

NIST: Fire weakens steel

Floor trusses sag

  • (Creep note: happens at ~30% of melting point, in this case ~920°C, so shouldn’t have happened)

  • Sag per model: w/creep: 44”, w/out creep: 24”

  • Problem: NIST paid UL $250K to test truss behavior, max deflection was 4”

  • NIST: UL tests weren’t representative, all had fireproofing

  • Actually, all had LESS fireproofing than build specs

  • This is a complex issue, and I’ve seen a lot of different takes on it.


Nist fire weakens steel6

NIST: Fire weakens steel

Sagging trusses pull wall inward


Nist fire weakens steel7

NIST: Fire weakens steel

Sagging trusses pull wall inward


Non nist observation

Non-NIST Observation

Sagging floors?

Trouble is, the floors at the perimeter walls could not have sagged if the trusses were able to pull in the walls.


Let s get technical

Let’s get technical !

  • for NIST’s “pile driver” to cause collapse?

  • to expand the large, fast dust clouds?

  • to throw heavy beams fast and far?

Was there ENOUGH ENERGY available from a GRAVITY DRIVEN collapse


Let s get technical1

Let’s get technical !

Mind-numbing analytical details and calculations moved to the end of the presentation, where they may never be seen again . . .


So we got technical

So we got technical !

And guess what?

There was notENOUGH ENERGY available

for any of these theories or observations:

  • NIST’s “pile driver” theory of collapse

  • expansion of the large, fast dust clouds

  • Heavy columns thrown far and fast


If gravity didn t have what it takes what did

If gravity didn’t have what it takes,What did?


The alternative theory

TheAlternativeTheory


The alternative theory definition

The Alternative Theory:Definition

Controlled Demolition

the bringing down of a building by the use of explosives/incendiaries to simultaneously remove critical supporting structure


The alternative theory immediate objections

The Alternative Theory:Immediate Objections

  • How on earth could “they” have moved enough explosives into those towers without being detected

  • Too many people -- someone would have told

  • The government might do some bad things, but it would never commit that heinous a crime


The alternative theory primary response

The Alternative Theory:Primary Response

A demonstrated fact should not be ignored or denied simply because there is no immediate explanation of its history (e.g., Jupiter’s moon Titan has methane in its atmosphere; we can demonstrate this, though we have no idea how it got there)


The alternative theory calling a spade a spade wtc7

The Alternative Theory:Calling a Spade a Spade (WTC7)

Danny Jowenko, a Danish demolition expert not dependent on U.S. reputation and government contracts


The alternative theory features consistent with explosives inconsistent with fire

The Alternative Theory:Features Consistent with Explosives, Inconsistent with Fire

  • Fall

    • Rapid onset of destruction at jet impact point

    • Straight-down symmetrical collapse

    • Near-freefall acceleration through path of greatest resistance

    • Large proportion of debris outside footprint

  • Explosives/incendiaries

    • Dismemberment of steel framework

    • Lateral ejection of steel members up to 600’

    • Pyroclastic (suspension) clouds of pulverized concrete

    • Evidence of high temperatures (molten metal, iron microspheres

    • Chemical evidence of thermitic material


Wtc 1 2 destruction features1

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features


Wtc 1 2 destruction features2

Sudden onset of destruction at point of impact

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

WTC 1


Wtc 1 2 destruction features3

Sudden onset of destruction at point of impact

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

WTC 2


Wtc 1 2 destruction features4

Straight-down Symmetrical Collapse

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

WTC 1


Wtc 1 2 destruction features5

Straight-down (almost) Symmetrical Collapse

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

WTC 2 (slow)


Wtc 1 2 destruction features6

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Time of Descent

  • Many different versions

    • some (even 9/11 Commission) claiming 10 secs

    • Jim Hoffman’s video timeline indicates 15 secshttp://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/evidence/timeline/videos.html

  • Even 15 too fast for overcoming obstacles at each story:

    • destruction of the structural integrity

    • pulverization of the concrete in the floor slabs, and other non-metallic objects

    • acceleration of the remains outward or downward.


Wtc 1 2 destruction features7

Near-Freefall Acceleration

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

WTC 1


The alternative theory1

The Alternative Theory:

Debris Outside Footprint

Heavy debris,perimeter columns

Lighter debris

X

Perimeter columns outside debris radius

FEMA report: WTC1-2 Debris


Wtc 1 2 destruction features8

Dismemberment: Debris Pile

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features


Wtc 1 2 destruction features9

Dismemberment: Debris Pile

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features


Wtc 1 2 destruction features debris

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesDebris

  • Bone Fragments

    • 2006: 750 found on roof of Deutsche Bank (250’ from WTC 1&2), each less than 1/2” long

    • 2010: 72 found in 2 dump trucks of debris being sifted by forensics experts

    • 2012: reports of some still being found

  • Victims (as of May 2002)

    • 2823 victims

    • 289 whole bodies recovered as of May 2002

    • 1053 individuals identified


Wtc 1 2 destruction features10

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Dismemberment: Core Obliteration

Massive 1000’ structure of cross-braced thick steel columns were dismembered (North tower section survived only temporarily)


Wtc 1 2 destruction features11

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Dismemberment: Core Obliteration


Wtc 1 2 destruction features12

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Lateral

Ejection

Large pieces of the structures thrown horizontally long distances at high velocities (40-60 mph)

perimeter column sticking out of the corner of WTC 3


Wtc 1 2 destruction features13

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Pyroclastic Dust Clouds

  • “Pyroclastic” is used to describe volcanic dust clouds

    • Fine particles (solids suspended in air)

    • Hot inside

    • Heat drives rapid expansion

    • Little mixing with ambient air


Wtc 1 2 destruction features14

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Pyroclastic Dust Clouds

Concrete was pulverized before it hit the ground, as destruction progressed.

Note also the dust’s explosive mushrooming upwardand outward (many times the size of the tower)


Wtc 1 2 destruction features15

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Pyroclastic Dust Clouds

* Fine dust suspended* Rapid expansion* Little mixing with air


Wtc 1 2 destruction features16

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Pyroclastic Dust Clouds

Dust reached ground 10 seconds after start

Core “spire” still standing here, fell at 29 seconds

Cloud has reached out 700’

Speed: 700/19 = 37 feet/sec = 25 mph


Wtc 1 2 destruction features17

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Expanding Dust Clouds

Dust reached ground 10 seconds after start

Core “spire” still standing here, fell at 29 seconds

Cloud has reached out 700’

Speed: 700/19 = 37 feet/sec = 25 mph


Wtc 1 2 destruction features18

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Destruction Above Impact Zone: WTC1

Damage line remains in place for a while while roof-top starts to descend, appears to disintegrate before the “collapse” begins.


Wtc 1 2 destruction features19

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Destruction Above Impact Zone: WTC2

Equal-time frames, angle changes from 1 to 2, not from 2 to 3, cessation of rotation violates conservation of angular momentum, unless mass is being destroyed


Wtc 1 2 destruction features20

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Early ejections

Dust and debris are ejected before fall -- South tower top is only tipping


Wtc 1 2 destruction features21

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Squibs

Ejections of dust far below destruction -- pressure might be distributed that far down due to pile-driver compression, but where does the dust come from, and why only in specific places?


Explosions witness reports

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Explosions: Witness Reports

In NYFD oral histories, hidden by NYFD until NY Times forced release in 2005, about 120 out of 500 reported explosions


Explosions witness reports1

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Explosions: Witness Reports

Firemen and WTC1-2 explosions


Explosions witness reports2

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Explosions: Witness Reports

Firemen hearing it; post-WTC1-2 explosions


High temperatures

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

High Temperatures

  • Remember:

    • Office fires: Usually max 1100°F

    • Iron/steel melt at about 2800°F

  • Metallic microspheres

    • Metal sprayed into air so surface tension can pull into near-spherical shapes

    • Iron (2800°F), lead (3180°F),molybdenum (4500°F)

  • Vaporized steel


High temperatures1

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

High Temperatures

NASA heat image from several weeks after 9/11 -- temperatures in excess of 1000°F on the surface


Iron rich microspheres

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Iron-rich Microspheres


Iron rich microspheres1

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Iron-rich Microspheres

  • RJ Lee (2003, 2004)

    • Studied Deutsche Bank dust contamination

    • Iron particles: 6% of WTC dust (>> .04%)

    • Lead oxide coated -> vaporization (3180°F)

  • US Geological Survey (2005)

    • WTC Particle Atlas

    • Iron-rich spherules

  • NIST mentions neither


Vaporization of steel

Vaporization of Steel

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesVaporization of Steel

  • FEMA Report, Appendix C (WTC7) authors

    • 1” column -> 1/2”, razor sharp, gaping holes like swiss cheese

    • “partly evaporated at extremely high temps

    • Thinning due to high temp (1800F) corrosion

    • Eutectic mixture w/sulfur (lowers melting point) accelerates intergranular melting

  • NIST ignored this

    • In Q&A, claimed sulfur came from wallboard

    • Never experimented, doesn’t happen


Wtc 1 2 destruction features vaporization of steel

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesVaporization of Steel

From FEMA Report, Appendix C (WTC7)


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

  • Question:What could generate sufficient heat to melt steel?

  • Answer:

    • Thermite -- an incendiary mixture of iron oxide (rust) and aluminum OR

    • Thermate -- the above combined with sulfur (lowers the melting point of iron/steel and would help explain the FEMA report’s sulfidation

  • BUT . . .


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues1

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

  • Objection:

    • Many: Thermite can’t cut through beams

    • NIST: Thermite can cut through a beam, but takes a while, so it isn’t fast enough to explain the rapid collapses.

  • Answer:

    • In fact, existing patented technology addressed this and other NIST objections, OR

    • Nanothermite -- thermite composed of particles on a nanometer (4 ten-millionths of an inch) scale.

  • BUT . . .


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues2

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

  • Objection:Forget about nanothermite. All the devices for directing the thermite blast would be found in the wreckage

  • Answer:

    • Nothing was found in the wreckage of that sort -- no desks, cabinets, furniture -- just concrete powder and structural steel

    • But in any case, self-destructing devices DO exist...


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues3

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues4

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

  • Objection:Well, there'd at least be miles of wiring tangled up in the debris.

  • Answer:Actually, wireless detonators were even available that can be connected to a programmed set of detonation instructions -- leaving open the possibility of an instantly reprogrammable set of instructions to match any given situation, such as where a plane hits. . .


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues5

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues6

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

  • Objection:I still don't believe thermite is fast enough, and even if it were, you'd need TONS of it.

  • Answer:That's why I suggested nanothermite.


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues7

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

  • Objection: There’s no such thing (in many forms!)

  • Answer:“At Livermore Laboratory, sol-gel chemistry [hydrocarbon matrix] ... has been the key to creating energetic materials with improved, exceptional, or entirely new properties ... These new materials have structures that can be controlled on the nanometer (billionth-of-a-meter) scale ... In general, the smaller the size of the materials being combined, the better the properties of energetic materials. Since these ‘nanostructures’ are formed with particles on the nanometer scale, the performance can be improved over materials with particles the size of grains of sand or of powdered sugar. In addition, these ‘nanocomposite’ materials can be easier and much safer to make than those made with traditional methods.”-- “Nanoscale chemistry yields better explosives”, in Science and Technology Review, October, 2000, published by Lawrence Livermore Lab


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues8

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

from Lawrence Livermore Lab: “Nanoscale chemistry yields better explosives”


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues9

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

  • Objection:What does that article have to do with WTC?

  • Answer:

    • Physicist Steven Jones found metallic chips in the WTC dust: red on one side, gray on the other

    • Their amount was not insignificant

    • The red side consisted of nano-scale particles and flat platelets, and contains, among other things, aluminum, iron, and oxygen, in a carbon-containing matrix

    • When heated to ~420°C, there was a sudden release of heat and production of iron-rich microspheres

    • The analysis team pubished a paper on this in 2009

  • BUT . . .


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues10

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

Red-gray (nanothermite?) chips


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues11

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

Nanothermite particles?


Wtc 1 2 destruction features residues12

WTC 1-2 Destruction FeaturesResidues

  • Objection:

    • The red layer was obviously protective paint coating (there are persuasive chemical analysis arguments to this effect)

    • They should have heated it in the absence of air -- thermite has its own oxygen and paint doesn’t

  • Answer:

    • Paint doesn’t have nano-scale particles

    • Paint does not burn hot enough to create iron-rich spheres

    • Nils Harritt stated on the record that they obtained samples of WTC protective paint and the chemical signature was not the same.


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • We know the official story is not true(this is only the tip of the iceberg)

  • We can surmise, but don’t know, what happened

  • The 9/11 Commission was compromised

    • Wrong goal: how did the attacks succeed

    • Staff head Philip Zelikow NOT independent

  • We need a new, truly independent investigation with subpoena power

    • NYCCAN attempting to get a NYC investigations


Appendix 1 wtc steel removal

Appendix 1:WTC Steel Removal


Wtc7 steel

WTC7 Steel

  • Only one piece examined by FEMA (App C)

    • liquid iron/oxygen/sulfur eutectic moved along intergranular boundaries, weakening the beam

    • eutectic mixture evidenced only 1000C, much lower than expected for melting steel

  • Possibilities raised by FEMA

    • long-term heating in the ground

    • pre-collapse, accelerated steel weakening

  • FEMA calls for further investigation, NIST doesn’t do it

  • Raises the larger question of WTC steel removal


Removal of wtc steel not all bite sized pieces

Removal of WTC SteelNot all bite-sized pieces

Indicates not total dismemberment, but confuses issue of what melted prior to collapse


Removal of wtc steel why is it an important issue

Removal of WTC SteelWhy is it an important issue?

  • Largest crime in U.S. history

  • Law requires preservation of evidence

  • 350,000 tons removed (acc. to FEMA)

  • Bloomberg: looking at steel doesn’t tell anything, need computer models

  • Yet said to be “highly sensitive”


Removal of wtc steel reasons given

Removal of WTC SteelReasons given

  • WTC1-2: Needed to find survivors

  • WTC7

    • Needed to find survivors (but evacuated)

    • Putting pressure on Verizon building (but could have just moved that part)

  • In any case, could have labeled, docu-mented location, and saved elsewhere


Removal of wtc steel what happened to it

Removal of WTC SteelWhat happened to it?

  • Thousands of pieces trucked to 4 landfills

  • Immediate result:

    • Most sent to Asia

    • Some used to build warship U.S.S. New York

    • 150 pieces saved (in off-limits hangar at JFK)

      • Only parts from underground and lobby area

      • Who decided?

  • Later (January 2007) found more

    • 2 columns, 3 connected perimeter columns(under road excavated for human remains)

    • 1 burned column at edge of site (city: was cut off)


Removal of wtc steel what did fema look for

Removal of WTC SteelWhat did FEMA look for?

  • Exterior column trees & interior core columns from 1 & 2 above the impact zone or exposed to fire and/or aircraft-impacted

  • Badly burnt pieces from WTC 7.

  • Connections from WTC 1, 2, and 7, such as seat connections, single shear plates, and column splices.

  • Bolts from WTC 1, 2, and 7 that were exposed to fire, fractured, and/or that appeared undamaged.

  • Floor trusses, including stiffeners, seats, other components.

  • Any piece that, in the engineer's professional opinion, might be useful for evaluation. When there was any doubt about a particular piece, the piece was kept while more information was gathered. A conservative approach was taken to avoid having important pieces processed in salvage yard operations.


Removal of wtc steel what about fema

Removal of WTC SteelWhat about FEMA?

  • 62 trips to landfills Oct-Feb

  • No access to Ground Zero

  • No permission to collect or store steel

  • No subpoena power to obtain building plans (to make intelligent choices)

  • Their observation of anomalies dropped


Removal of wtc steel highly sensitive

Removal of WTC Steel“Highly sensitive”

  • Nov 26: Trucks monitored by GPShttp://securitysolutions.com/ar/security_gps_job_massive/

    • Sept: alleged criminal scheme to divert steel

    • Oct: found 250 tons of scrap in LI and NJ

    • “Geofenced” zones, “geofenced” corridors

    • Improved efficiency and gridlock

  • Driver behavior monitored, checked, analyzed (1.5hr lunch -> firing)

  • “Loads consisted of highly sensitive material”


Appendix 2 energy a technical discussion

Appendix 2:Energy:A Technical Discussion


Let s get technical2

Let’s get technical !

  • for NIST’s “pile driver” to cause collapse?

  • to expand the large, fast dust clouds?

  • to throw heavy beams fast and far?

Was there ENOUGH ENERGY available


Forces and momentum

Forces and Momentum

Momentum Transfer Analysis of the Collapse of the Upper Storeys of WTC 1

Dr. Gordon Ross, June 2006

http://www.journalof911studies.com/articles/Journal_5_PTransferRoss.pdf


Forces and momentum1

Forces and Momentum

Basic idea

Previous momentum analyses treated floors as individual items hanging in space, instead of being interconnected, with forces moving and distributing through the structure below.


Forces and momentum2

Forces and Momentum

What you need to know about . . .

Compression of Steel Columns

  • Elastic phase -- load increases to failure load, at which point column is shortened 0.2% of its length; can recover (“bounce”)

  • Shortening phase -- failure load then shortens column, up to 3% of its length

  • Buckling phase -- buckling points appear, much less force needed to continue

  • Pressure wave -- moves at 4500 m/sec


Forces and momentum3

Forces and Momentum

What happens 1

  • Top 16 stories of North Tower (as a chunk) free-falls through a “disappeared” story

  • Hits at 8.5 m/sec

  • At that speed, it takes .013 sec to shorten next story by 3% (to commence buckling)

  • .013 sec is time for force to propagate ~60m, or 16 stories down, so all these are “moving” and thus have momentum


Forces and conserved momentum

Forces and (conserved) Momentum

What happens 2

  • Now 16+1 stories falling, cuts speed from 8.5 to 8 m/sec . . . BUT

  • The 16 stories below are also moving slightly, and their combined momentum slows the top chunk to about 5 m/sec

  • This gives additional time for the propagation wave to involve additional floors


Forces and momentum4

Forces and Momentum

... and after many detailed calculations of kinetic and potential energy, elastic and plastic strain energy, and concrete pulverization energy...


Forces and momentum5

Forces and Momentum

Energy Summary


Forces and momentum6

Forces and Momentum

But that’s an underestimate

  • Initial drop -- Assumption of unimpeded drop is unrealistically favorable to continued collapse

  • Elastic springback -- robs some kinetic energy

  • Ejections -- mass is lost by material thrown outside the tower perimeter, and energy required to move that mass outward

  • The “chunk” -- energy also absorbed by damage sustained by lighter columns in “chunk”

  • Other damage -- energy needed to sever floor/column connections and destroy other structural elements and floor contents


Forces and momentum7

Forces and Momentum

Conclusion

The energy balance of the collapse moves into deficit during the plastic shortening phase of the first impacted columns showing that there would be insufficient energy available from the released potential energy of the upper section to satisfy all of the energy demands of the collision. The analysis shows that despite the assumptions made in favor of collapse continuation, vertical movement of the falling section would be arrested prior to completion of the 3% shortening phase of the impacted columns, and within 0.02 seconds after impact.

i.e., Collapse stops after 1 floor drop


2 dust cloud expansion

2. Dust Cloud Expansion

The North Tower's Dust Cloud:

Analysis of Energy Requirements for the Expansion of the Dust Cloud Following the Collapse of 1 World Trade Center

Jim Hoffman, January 2004 (v. 3.1)

http://911research.wtc7.net/papers/dustvolume/volumev3_1.html


Dust cloud expansion

Dust Cloud Expansion

But before we get into the expansion of the dust cloud, what about all that dust?


Dust cloud expansion1

Dust Cloud Expansion

Pulverization Energy

  • Concrete in tower: 90,000 tons

  • Pulverize concrete to ~2mm size: 1.5KWh/tonhttp://www.b-i-m.de/public/ibac/mueller.htm

  • Energy to pulverize to 2mm: 135,000 KWh

  • But energy to pulverize inversely proportional to sqrt of particle diameter, dust 0.06 mm (or less)http://www.911-strike.com/powder.htm

  • Sqrt 2 = 1.4, sqrt .06 = .24 --- factor of 6

  • So dust creation requires ~ 6x135,000=800,000 Kwh


Dust cloud expansion2

Dust Cloud Expansion

Pulverization Energy

  • Somewhere between 135,000 and 800,000 KWh needed

  • FEMA’s report: Tower 1 construction stored more than 111,000 KWh potential energy

  • So not enough energy to pulverize concrete not as fine as observed, much less distribute it in fast-moving large clouds

  • But forget that. There’s more ....


Dust cloud expansion3

Dust Cloud Expansion

Basic idea

The amount of thermal energy needed to expand the North Tower dust cloud as observed 30 seconds after collapse is far greater than the gravitational potential energy available from the height and mass of the tower. How?


Dust cloud expansion4

Dust Cloud Expansion

What can produce expansion?

  • expansion of gases due to heat

  • vaporization of liquids and solids

  • chemical reactions resulting in a net increase in the number of gaseous phase molecules(since this last can only be due to explosives, we’ll ignore it)


Dust cloud expansion5

Dust Cloud Expansion

Analysis steps

  • Estimate cloud volume at given specific time before diffusion occurs

  • Factor out mixed-in air to get volume of particles of the contents originally in tower

  • Establish ratio of this to the original volume -- i.e., the volume of the tower?

  • How much energy is needed to generate that ratio of expansion for different levels of gas-expansion and liquid/solid vaporization?


Dust cloud expansion6

Dust Cloud Expansion

The picture (30 seconds later)

The ref points

The cylinder:

Height: 200’

Radius: 800’


Dust cloud expansion7

Dust Cloud Expansion

  • Cylinder volume: 402 million ft3

    • ~1/4 is buildings, so dust = 300 million ft3

    • assume 1/3 is mixed-in air (unlikely -- see next slide) so conservative estimate ofCloud Volume = 200 million ft3

  • Speed of advance observed: 25 mph

Parameters at 30 sec


Dust cloud expansion8

Dust Cloud Expansion

Due to mixing/diffusion?

  • 25 mph is too fast for advance to be diffusion

  • Outside features of cloud were relatively stable, not diffused by m/d

  • Sinking sections replaced by clear air

  • Reports of people being picked up and carried by “solid” wall of hot dust


Dust cloud expansion9

Dust Cloud Expansion

Expansion in 30 sec

  • Tower volume:1368’ x 207’ x 207’ = 58.6 million ft3

  • Cloud volume: ~200 million ft3

  • Expansion ratio: 3.41 (conservative)


Dust cloud expansion10

Dust Cloud Expansion

1. Gas expansion by heat 1

  • If pressure and amount (mass) stay the same, volume is proportional to absolute temperature (PV = nRT)

  • If start temp was room temp (300oK), 3.4 x that is 1020oK, an increase of 680o.

  • Raising air that far requires 499,500 KWh (remember: available energy = 111,000)

  • But it gets worse . . .


Dust cloud expansion11

Dust Cloud Expansion

1. Gas expansion by heat 2

  • Such tiny dust particles (10-60 microns) will reach temp equilibrium with surrounding air very fast

  • So you have to raise them 680o too

  • The 90,000 tons of concrete dust would require > 11 million KWh

  • And if there’s water, it gets worse, but we’ll skip that and treat water separately


Dust cloud expansion12

Dust Cloud Expansion

2. Vaporization of water

  • 3.4 expansion means 2.4 x tower volume would be created steam: 2.4 x 58 million ft3 = 141 million ft3 = 4 billion liters

  • Volume at 100oC: steam = 1680 x water

  • So 2.4 million liters of water needed to produce the entire cloud volume of steam

  • Conversion would require > 1.5 million KWh

  • Plumbing + concrete + people: not enough


Dust cloud expansion13

Dust Cloud Expansion

How much of which?

  • Heating of gases: would require 780oC

    • Ground level not that hot

    • High heat apparent higher in cloud (next slide)

  • Water-to-steam: requires too much water, needs additional heat to get to 100oC first

  • If combined: steam conversion would add to the energy requirement of gas heating, additional head needed for concrete dust

  • Reduction? Early dust settling would reduce needed heat, but cloud behavior contradicts that


Dust cloud expansion14

Dust Cloud Expansion

High Temperatures

“Digital photographs and videos show a bright afterglow with a locus near the center of the cloud, commencing around 17 seconds after the onset of the North Tower's collapse.

“Once the afterglow started, the cloud developed large upwelling columns towering to over 600 feet, and the previously gray cloud appeared to glow with a reddish hue.”


Dust cloud expansion15

Dust Cloud Expansion

Summary: Energy Sources and Requirements

Conservative figures


Dust cloud expansion16

Dust Cloud Expansion

Why conservative?

  • They are based on an estimate of dust cloud volume at a time long before the cloud stopped growing.

  • They use a liberal estimate of the contribution of mixing to the volume (1/3).

  • They ignore thermal losses due to radiation.

  • They ignore the resistance to expansion due to the inertia of the suspended materials, and energy requirements to overcome it.


Dust cloud expansion17

Dust Cloud Expansion

Conclusion

The massive discrepancy between the gravitational energy available and the heat energy needed to drive the expansion of the dust cloud render the gravity explanation for the collapse of the North Tower (and similarly, the South Tower) untenable.


3 beam ejection

3. Beam Ejection


Beam ejection

Beam Ejection

http://www.photolibrary.fema.gov/photodata/original/3942.jpg

Photograph by Michael Rieger taken on 09/18/2001 in New York


Beam ejection1

Beam Ejection

Structure of Perimeter Columns

(FEMA)


Beam ejection well maybe not 600 000 lbs

Beam EjectionWell, maybe not 600,000 lbs...

MIN

near top

NIST, via Gregory H. Urich *

B.S. Elect/Computer Engineering

MAX

near bottom

AVG

scaled

* http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200703/GUrich/MassAndPeWtc.pdf


Beam ejection2

Beam Ejection

World Financial

Center 3


Beam ejection3

Beam Ejection

Distance from North Tower

to World Financial Center 3

about 480 feet

(NASA photo & scale from FEMA report)


Beam ejection4

Beam Ejection

Parameters

  • Building: WFC3 American Expresshttp://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/wtc/WTC_ch7.htm

  • Horizontal distance: 480 ft / 160 m

  • Column weight: 3.5K / 12K / 23K lbs

  • Vertical distance (conservative): 325 m

    • North Tower -- use top: 400 m

    • WFC3 24th floor: 75 m

  • Air resistance: negligible (heavy, spearlike)


Beam ejection5

Beam Ejection

Calculation

  • fall time = sqrt (vert-distance / 1/2 gravity) = sqrt ( 325 m / 4.8 m/sec2 ) = 8.14 sec

  • horizontal speed = horiz-distance / time = 160 m / 8.14 sec = 71.1 m/sec = 44.2 mph

  • Force to accelerate 4 - 11 tons to 44 mph ??


So we got technical1

So we got technical !

And guess what?

There was notENOUGH ENERGY available

for any of these theories or observations:

  • NIST’s “pile driver” theory of collapse

  • expansion of the large, fast dust clouds

  • Heavy columns thrown far and fast


Wtc 1 2 destruction features22

WTC 1-2 Destruction Features

Concrete Pulverization

“Pyroclastic” is used to describe volcanic dust clouds

Fine particles (solids suspended in air)

Hot inside

Heat drives rapid expansion

Little mixing with ambient air


Appendix 1 wtc steel removal1

Appendix 1:WTC Steel Removal


Wtc7 steel1

WTC7 Steel

  • Only one piece examined by FEMA (App C)

    • liquid iron/oxygen/sulfur eutectic moved along intergranular boundaries, weakening the beam

    • eutectic mixture evidenced only 1000C, much lower than expected for melting steel

  • Possibilities raised by FEMA

    • long-term heating in the ground

    • pre-collapse, accelerated steel weakening

  • FEMA calls for further investigation, NIST doesn’t do it

  • Raises the larger question of WTC steel removal


Removal of wtc steel not all bite sized pieces1

Removal of WTC SteelNot all bite-sized pieces

Indicates not total dismemberment, but confuses issue of what melted prior to collapse


Removal of wtc steel why is it an important issue1

Removal of WTC SteelWhy is it an important issue?

  • Largest crime in U.S. history

  • Law requires preservation of evidence

  • 350,000 tons removed (acc. to FEMA)

  • Bloomberg: looking at steel doesn’t tell anything, need computer models

  • Yet said to be “highly sensitive”


Removal of wtc steel reasons given1

Removal of WTC SteelReasons given

  • WTC1-2: Needed to find survivors

  • WTC7

    • Needed to find survivors (but evacuated)

    • Putting pressure on Verizon building (but could have just moved that part)

  • In any case, could have labeled, docu-mented location, and saved elsewhere


Removal of wtc steel what happened to it1

Removal of WTC SteelWhat happened to it?

  • Thousands of pieces trucked to 4 landfills

  • Immediate result:

    • Most sent to Asia

    • Some used to build warship U.S.S. New York

    • 150 pieces saved (in off-limits hangar at JFK)

      • Only parts from underground and lobby area

      • Who decided?

  • Later (January 2007) found more

    • 2 columns, 3 connected perimeter columns(under road excavated for human remains)

    • 1 burned column at edge of site (city: was cut off)


Removal of wtc steel what did fema look for1

Removal of WTC SteelWhat did FEMA look for?

  • Exterior column trees & interior core columns from 1 & 2 above the impact zone or exposed to fire and/or aircraft-impacted

  • Badly burnt pieces from WTC 7.

  • Connections from WTC 1, 2, and 7, such as seat connections, single shear plates, and column splices.

  • Bolts from WTC 1, 2, and 7 that were exposed to fire, fractured, and/or that appeared undamaged.

  • Floor trusses, including stiffeners, seats, other components.

  • Any piece that, in the engineer's professional opinion, might be useful for evaluation. When there was any doubt about a particular piece, the piece was kept while more information was gathered. A conservative approach was taken to avoid having important pieces processed in salvage yard operations.


Removal of wtc steel what about fema1

Removal of WTC SteelWhat about FEMA?

  • 62 trips to landfills Oct-Feb

  • No access to Ground Zero

  • No permission to collect or store steel

  • No subpoena power to obtain building plans (to make intelligent choices)

  • Their observation of anomalies dropped


Removal of wtc steel highly sensitive1

Removal of WTC Steel“Highly sensitive”

  • Nov 26: Trucks monitored by GPShttp://securitysolutions.com/ar/security_gps_job_massive/

    • Sept: alleged criminal scheme to divert steel

    • Oct: found 250 tons of scrap in LI and NJ

    • “Geofenced” zones, “geofenced” corridors

    • Improved efficiency and gridlock

  • Driver behavior monitored, checked, analyzed (1.5hr lunch -> firing)

  • “Loads consisted of highly sensitive material”


Appendix 2 energy a technical discussion1

Appendix 2:Energy:A Technical Discussion


Let s get technical3

Let’s get technical !

  • for NIST’s “pile driver” to cause collapse?

  • to expand the large, fast dust clouds?

  • to throw heavy beams fast and far?

Was there ENOUGH ENERGY available


Forces and momentum8

Forces and Momentum

Momentum Transfer Analysis of the Collapse of the Upper Storeys of WTC 1

Dr. Gordon Ross, June 2006

http://www.journalof911studies.com/articles/Journal_5_PTransferRoss.pdf


Forces and momentum9

Forces and Momentum

Basic idea

Previous momentum analyses treated floors as individual items hanging in space, instead of being interconnected, with forces moving and distributing through the structure below.


Forces and momentum10

Forces and Momentum

What you need to know about . . .

Compression of Steel Columns

  • Elastic phase -- load increases to failure load, at which point column is shortened 0.2% of its length; can recover (“bounce”)

  • Shortening phase -- failure load then shortens column, up to 3% of its length

  • Buckling phase -- buckling points appear, much less force needed to continue

  • Pressure wave -- moves at 4500 m/sec


Forces and momentum11

Forces and Momentum

What happens 1

  • Top 16 stories of North Tower (as a chunk) free-falls through a “disappeared” story

  • Hits at 8.5 m/sec

  • At that speed, it takes .013 sec to shorten next story by 3% (to commence buckling)

  • .013 sec is time for force to propagate ~60m, or 16 stories down, so all these are “moving” and thus have momentum


Forces and conserved momentum1

Forces and (conserved) Momentum

What happens 2

  • Now 16+1 stories falling, cuts speed from 8.5 to 8 m/sec . . . BUT

  • The 16 stories below are also moving slightly, and their combined momentum slows the top chunk to about 5 m/sec

  • This gives additional time for the propagation wave to involve additional floors


Forces and momentum12

Forces and Momentum

... and after many detailed calculations of kinetic and potential energy, elastic and plastic strain energy, and concrete pulverization energy...


Forces and momentum13

Forces and Momentum

Energy Summary


Forces and momentum14

Forces and Momentum

But that’s an underestimate

  • Initial drop -- Assumption of unimpeded drop is unrealistically favorable to continued collapse

  • Elastic springback -- robs some kinetic energy

  • Ejections -- mass is lost by material thrown outside the tower perimeter, and energy required to move that mass outward

  • The “chunk” -- energy also absorbed by damage sustained by lighter columns in “chunk”

  • Other damage -- energy needed to sever floor/column connections and destroy other structural elements and floor contents


Forces and momentum15

Forces and Momentum

Conclusion

The energy balance of the collapse moves into deficit during the plastic shortening phase of the first impacted columns showing that there would be insufficient energy available from the released potential energy of the upper section to satisfy all of the energy demands of the collision. The analysis shows that despite the assumptions made in favor of collapse continuation, vertical movement of the falling section would be arrested prior to completion of the 3% shortening phase of the impacted columns, and within 0.02 seconds after impact.

i.e., Collapse stops after 1 floor drop


2 dust cloud expansion1

2. Dust Cloud Expansion

The North Tower's Dust Cloud:

Analysis of Energy Requirements for the Expansion of the Dust Cloud Following the Collapse of 1 World Trade Center

Jim Hoffman, January 2004 (v. 3.1)

http://911research.wtc7.net/papers/dustvolume/volumev3_1.html


Dust cloud expansion18

Dust Cloud Expansion

But before we get into the expansion of the dust cloud, what about all that dust?


Dust cloud expansion19

Dust Cloud Expansion

Pulverization Energy

  • Concrete in tower: 90,000 tons

  • Pulverize concrete to ~2mm size: 1.5KWh/tonhttp://www.b-i-m.de/public/ibac/mueller.htm

  • Energy to pulverize to 2mm: 135,000 KWh

  • But energy to pulverize inversely proportional to sqrt of particle diameter, dust 0.06 mm (or less)http://www.911-strike.com/powder.htm

  • Sqrt 2 = 1.4, sqrt .06 = .24 --- factor of 6

  • So dust creation requires ~ 6x135,000=800,000 Kwh


Dust cloud expansion20

Dust Cloud Expansion

Pulverization Energy

  • Somewhere between 135,000 and 800,000 KWh needed

  • FEMA’s report: Tower 1 construction stored more than 111,000 KWh potential energy

  • So not enough energy to pulverize concrete not as fine as observed, much less distribute it in fast-moving large clouds

  • But forget that. There’s more ....


Dust cloud expansion21

Dust Cloud Expansion

Basic idea

The amount of thermal energy needed to expand the North Tower dust cloud as observed 30 seconds after collapse is far greater than the gravitational potential energy available from the height and mass of the tower. How?


Dust cloud expansion22

Dust Cloud Expansion

What can produce expansion?

  • expansion of gases due to heat

  • vaporization of liquids and solids

  • chemical reactions resulting in a net increase in the number of gaseous phase molecules(since this last can only be due to explosives, we’ll ignore it)


Dust cloud expansion23

Dust Cloud Expansion

Analysis steps

  • Estimate cloud volume at given specific time before diffusion occurs

  • Factor out mixed-in air to get volume of particles of the contents originally in tower

  • Establish ratio of this to the original volume -- i.e., the volume of the tower?

  • How much energy is needed to generate that ratio of expansion for different levels of gas-expansion and liquid/solid vaporization?


Dust cloud expansion24

Dust Cloud Expansion

The picture (30 seconds later)

The ref points

The cylinder:

Height: 200’

Radius: 800’


Dust cloud expansion25

Dust Cloud Expansion

  • Cylinder volume: 402 million ft3

    • ~1/4 is buildings, so dust = 300 million ft3

    • assume 1/3 is mixed-in air (unlikely -- see next slide) so conservative estimate ofCloud Volume = 200 million ft3

  • Speed of advance observed: 25 mph

Parameters at 30 sec


Dust cloud expansion26

Dust Cloud Expansion

Due to mixing/diffusion?

  • 25 mph is too fast for advance to be diffusion

  • Outside features of cloud were relatively stable, not diffused by m/d

  • Sinking sections replaced by clear air

  • Reports of people being picked up and carried by “solid” wall of hot dust


Dust cloud expansion27

Dust Cloud Expansion

Expansion in 30 sec

  • Tower volume:1368’ x 207’ x 207’ = 58.6 million ft3

  • Cloud volume: ~200 million ft3

  • Expansion ratio: 3.41 (conservative)


Dust cloud expansion28

Dust Cloud Expansion

1. Gas expansion by heat 1

  • If pressure and amount (mass) stay the same, volume is proportional to absolute temperature (PV = nRT)

  • If start temp was room temp (300oK), 3.4 x that is 1020oK, an increase of 680o.

  • Raising air that far requires 499,500 KWh (remember: available energy = 111,000)

  • But it gets worse . . .


Dust cloud expansion29

Dust Cloud Expansion

1. Gas expansion by heat 2

  • Such tiny dust particles (10-60 microns) will reach temp equilibrium with surrounding air very fast

  • So you have to raise them 680o too

  • The 90,000 tons of concrete dust would require > 11 million KWh

  • And if there’s water, it gets worse, but we’ll skip that and treat water separately


Dust cloud expansion30

Dust Cloud Expansion

2. Vaporization of water

  • 3.4 expansion means 2.4 x tower volume would be created steam: 2.4 x 58 million ft3 = 141 million ft3 = 4 billion liters

  • Volume at 100oC: steam = 1680 x water

  • So 2.4 million liters of water needed to produce the entire cloud volume of steam

  • Conversion would require > 1.5 million KWh

  • Plumbing + concrete + people: not enough


Dust cloud expansion31

Dust Cloud Expansion

How much of which?

  • Heating of gases: would require 780oC

    • Ground level not that hot

    • High heat apparent higher in cloud (next slide)

  • Water-to-steam: requires too much water, needs additional heat to get to 100oC first

  • If combined: steam conversion would add to the energy requirement of gas heating, additional head needed for concrete dust

  • Reduction? Early dust settling would reduce needed heat, but cloud behavior contradicts that


Dust cloud expansion32

Dust Cloud Expansion

High Temperatures

“Digital photographs and videos show a bright afterglow with a locus near the center of the cloud, commencing around 17 seconds after the onset of the North Tower's collapse.

“Once the afterglow started, the cloud developed large upwelling columns towering to over 600 feet, and the previously gray cloud appeared to glow with a reddish hue.”


Dust cloud expansion33

Dust Cloud Expansion

Summary: Energy Sources and Requirements

Conservative figures


Dust cloud expansion34

Dust Cloud Expansion

Why conservative?

  • They are based on an estimate of dust cloud volume at a time long before the cloud stopped growing.

  • They use a liberal estimate of the contribution of mixing to the volume (1/3).

  • They ignore thermal losses due to radiation.

  • They ignore the resistance to expansion due to the inertia of the suspended materials, and energy requirements to overcome it.


Dust cloud expansion35

Dust Cloud Expansion

Conclusion

The massive discrepancy between the gravitational energy available and the heat energy needed to drive the expansion of the dust cloud render the gravity explanation for the collapse of the North Tower (and similarly, the South Tower) untenable.


3 beam ejection1

3. Beam Ejection


Beam ejection6

Beam Ejection

http://www.photolibrary.fema.gov/photodata/original/3942.jpg

Photograph by Michael Rieger taken on 09/18/2001 in New York


Beam ejection7

Beam Ejection

Structure of Perimeter Columns

(FEMA)


Beam ejection well maybe not 600 000 lbs1

Beam EjectionWell, maybe not 600,000 lbs...

MIN

near top

NIST, via Gregory H. Urich *

B.S. Elect/Computer Engineering

MAX

near bottom

AVG

scaled

* http://www.journalof911studies.com/volume/200703/GUrich/MassAndPeWtc.pdf


Beam ejection8

Beam Ejection

World Financial

Center 3


Beam ejection9

Beam Ejection

Distance from North Tower

to World Financial Center 3

about 480 feet

(NASA photo & scale from FEMA report)


Beam ejection10

Beam Ejection

Parameters

  • Building: WFC3 American Expresshttp://911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/wtc/WTC_ch7.htm

  • Horizontal distance: 480 ft / 160 m

  • Column weight: 3.5K / 12K / 23K lbs

  • Vertical distance (conservative): 325 m

    • North Tower -- use top: 400 m

    • WFC3 24th floor: 75 m

  • Air resistance: negligible (heavy, spearlike)


Beam ejection11

Beam Ejection

Calculation

  • fall time = sqrt (vert-distance / 1/2 gravity) = sqrt ( 325 m / 4.8 m/sec2 ) = 8.14 sec

  • horizontal speed = horiz-distance / time = 160 m / 8.14 sec = 71.1 m/sec = 44.2 mph

  • Force to accelerate 4 - 11 tons to 44 mph ??


So we got technical2

So we got technical !

And guess what?

There was notENOUGH ENERGY available

for any of these theories or observations:

  • NIST’s “pile driver” theory of collapse

  • expansion of the large, fast dust clouds

  • Heavy columns thrown far and fast


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