Social Science. - The British India. Ruling the Countryside. System adopted by company to collect the revenue worsened the condition of people. Farmers suffered a lot across the country. East India Company Become Diwans Of Bengal, Orissa and Bihar.
- The British India
System adopted by company to collect the revenue worsened the condition of people.
Farmers suffered a lot across the country.
Of Bengal, Orissa and Bihar
Robert Clive Receiving the "Diwani" of Bengal from the Moghul Empire in 1765
In the year 1765 Moghul Emperor Shah Alam granted to the company the diwani of Bengal , Bihar and Orissa
Moghul Emperor appointed two persons in the province that is Subah; one was called as Nawab and second was Diwan
Many people appointed as tax farmers absconded with as much revenue as they could during the time period between inspections. The agricultural cultivation had collapsed. In 1770, a terrible famine killed ten million people in Bengal. Parliament took note of the disastrous consequences of the system, and in 1784 British PrimeMinister William Pitt the Younger directed the Calcutta administration to alter it immediately. In 1786 Charles Cornwallis was sent out to India to reform the company\'s practices.
Besides being turned into proprietors of land, the zamindars were endowed with the privilege of holding their proprietary right at a rate which was to continue unchanged for ever.
Most of the landlords did not take any interest in the improvements of the land but were merely interested in extracting the maximum possible rent from the tenants, being under the constant fear had no incentive improve the land.
On Bengal Ryots
As his thinking was that village was an important social institution in north Indian society and were needed to be preserved.
*The british territories in the south there was similar move away from the idea of permanent settlement. The system that was devised to be known as the ryotwar system.
INDIGO IS A DECIDUOUS SHRUB OF SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA HAVING PINNATE LEAVES AND CLUSTERS OF RED OR PURPLE FLOWERS; A SOURCE OF INDIGO DYE.
THERE WERE TWO WAYS TO OZF INDIGO CULTIVATION. THEY ARE NIJ AND RYOTI.IN NIJ CULTIVATION ,THE FARMER PRODUCED INDIGO IN LANDS THAT WERE DIRECTLY CONTROLLED .UNDER THE RYOTI SYSTEM,THE PLANTERS FORCEDTHE RYOTISTO SIGN A CONTRACT .
UNDER THE RYOTI SYSTEM, THE PLANTERS FORCED THE RYOTS TO SIGN A CONTRACT (SATTA). STEPS INVOLVED IN RYOTI CULTIVATION:
Contractor got cash from planter in advance
Planter provided the seed and the drill
Then the crop was delivered to the planter after the harvest.
Cultivators prepared the soil, sowed the seed and looked after the crop.
1. PEASANTS SOON REALISED THAT THE SYSTEM WAS NOT CORRECT. THEY GOT LESS MONEY FOR INDIGO AND THE CYCLE OF LOAN DID NOT END.
2. PLANTERS WANTED THE INDIGO TO GROW IN THE BEST SOIL FOR A GOOD YIELD. BUT THE BEST SOIL WAS USED FOR RICE CULTIVATION.
3. IF THEY GROW THE INDIGO IN THAT SOIL , THE SOIL WILL BE EXHAUSTED. ONCE INDIGO IS HARVESTED PADDY(RICE)CANNOT BE GROWN IN THAT SOIL.
In March 1859 thousands of ryots in BENGAL refused to grow Indigo , They refused to pay taxes,
They attacked Indigo factories with swords ,spears, bows n arrows , Women also turned up to fight with pots , pans and kitchen implements .
Word went around that QUEEN VICTORIA had declared that indigo need not be sown.