Phonemics
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Phonemics The Study of Phonemes PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Phonemics The Study of Phonemes. Definition of Phoneme. A minimal class of phones which possess shared features that clearly contrast to those of other phonemes and form the basis of distinguishing one utterance from another. Most Languages have 50 or fewer phonemes.

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Phonemics The Study of Phonemes

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Phonemics the study of phonemes

Phonemics

The Study of Phonemes


Definition of phoneme

Definition of Phoneme

  • A minimal class of phones which possess shared features that clearly contrast to those of other phonemes and form the basis of distinguishing one utterance from another.


Phonemics the study of phonemes

Most Languages have 50 or fewer phonemes.

No language uses all possible phonemes

The phones contained in corresponding phonenemes in different languages may vary significantly.


Phonemic categories differ from one language to another

In English, trilled and untrilled r’s are in the same phoneme.

In English b and v are in different phonemes.

berry vs. very

In English r and l anre in different phonemes

river vs. liver

In Spanish, trilled and untrilled r’s are in different phonemes.

pero vs. perro

In Spanish, b and v are in the same phoneme.

In Chinese r and l are in the same phoneme

Phonemic Categories Differ from One Language to Another


Allophones

Allophones

Definition: Phones that occupy the same phoneme are called allophones.


Goals of a phonemic analysis

Goals of a Phonemic Analysis

1. To identify a minimal set of phonemes for the language

  • To identify which phones from the language are classified together in a given phoneme as allophones

  • To identify the contexts in which a given allophone will be used instead of others in the same phoneme


Kinds of allophones

Kinds of Allophones

Free variation allophones

Complementary distribution allophones


Free variation allophones

Free Variation Allophones

Where the use of a particular allophone overlaps with the use of others

Two sounds are used indiscriminately in different phonetic contexts


Complementary distribution allophones

Complementary Distribution Allophones

Two allophones are in complementary distribution if the contexts in which they appear do not overlap.

Two sounds are never used in the same phonetic context.


Kinds of phonetic context some examples

Kinds of Phonetic ContextSome Examples

  • Immediate context = the sounds which immediately precede and follow the allophone

  • The stress of the sounds that follow or precede the allophone

  • Whether the allophone begins or ends a word

  • When the allophone begins a word, the sound with which the word preceding the allophone ends

  • When the allophone ends a word, the sound with which the word following the allophone begins


Immediate context example

Immediate Context Example

She vs. Shoe

The vowel following the “sh” sound changes the way the sound is made. The two “sh” sounds are allophones of the same phoneme, but are used in different contexts, one following the “oo” and one following the “ee” sound.


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