Lecture 22: Observational Research

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Benefits. Generalizability : Observe behavior passively as it occurs in a natural environmentBehavior reflects the constraints of the organisms natural enviornmentNatural events are the IvsAllows collection of data where experimental studies are not practical or ethicalGenerates hypotheses that may be subjected to further examinationJane Goodall's Chimp studies.

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Lecture 22: Observational Research

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1. Lecture 22: Observational Research

2. Benefits Generalizability : Observe behavior passively as it occurs in a natural environment Behavior reflects the constraints of the organisms natural enviornment Natural events are the Ivs Allows collection of data where experimental studies are not practical or ethical Generates hypotheses that may be subjected to further examination Jane Goodall's Chimp studies

3. Potential Costs Can be expensive and time consuming Coding sheet development Multiple raters Huge databases Hawthorne effects Potential violation of privacy and informed consent

4. Clark & Hatfield (1989). Gender Differences in Receptivity to Sexual Offers

5. Research Question How receptive are men versus women to sexual invitations? What happens when a stranger approaches someone of the opposite sex and asks her or him for a date or sexual encounter? Studies conducted in 1978 and 1982.

6. Method Confederates approached total strangers that they found attractive. Both studies: N = 96; 50% women “I have been noticing you around campus. I find you to be very attractive.” Manipulation “Would you go out with me tonight?” “Would you come over to my apartment tonight?” “Would you go to bed with me tonight?”

7. Study 1 Results – Percentage of Compliance with Each Request

8. Observational Research Researchers observe and systematically record naturally occurring events Characteristics: A. Serves a Formulated Research Purpose B. Planned Deliberately C. Recorded Systematically D. Subjected to Checks and Controls on Reliability and Validity

9. Kinds of Observational Research Observation Involving Physical Traces Systematic Observation Marital Interaction Classroom Interaction Ethological Approaches Others?

10. Physical Traces Look for Physical Evidence of Behaviors of Interest Same Measurement Principles Apply – Reliability and Validity Erosion measures Examples Accretion measures Examples

11. Garbology (e.g., Charlin et al., 1990; Sussman & Stacy, 1994) Borrowed from Anthropology Observing tobacco refuse at schools offers an “impersonal means of gauging school-level tobacco use.” Also can be used for alcohol refuse. Advantage: Quick (and Dirty!), Cheap, and Unreactive

12. Spearman Correlations Across 19 Schools (Charlin et al., 1990) - Cigarettes + Smokeless Tobacco

13. Correlations from 20 Continuation Schools (Sussman & Stacy, 1994) - Alcohol

14. Correlations from 20 Continuation Schools (Sussman & Stacy, 1994) - Cigarettes

15. Systematic Observation The standard technique…train observers to record behavior following a systematic coding scheme. Know the Steps in the Book (page 375-380)

16. Who Actually Shoplifts? (Dabney, Hollinger, & Dugan, 2004)

17. Shoplifting Estimated that the retail industry loses around $10 billion dollars annually due to shoplifting. Seems to be a fairly prevalent crime but one that is infrequently detected. Used a high-tech video surveillance system at a single drug store in Atlanta. Collected data for 12 months.

18. Sampling First Six Months – Every third shopper who entered the store Last Six Months – Every third shopper who was dressed in a fashion that they could conceal merchandise or if they exhibited “cues” in first 15 seconds Store was free to take action against shoplifters but researchers were separate entities. Store employees did not contact anyone seen by researchers to shoplift.

19. Final Sample Total Observations = 1,243 Number of Shoplifters = 105 (8.4%) Best Predictors Behavioral Cues No Purchase Social Class Indicators Being Between the Ages of 35 to 54

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