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CHINA. Traditional China. Son of Heaven. The King Served as a link between heaven and Earth King consulted spirits of ancestors to find answers to problems Oracle Bones Sheep or goat bones with questions written on them. Bones were heated Cracks revealed answers from the Heavens.

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China

CHINA

Traditional China


Son of heaven
Son of Heaven

  • The King

  • Served as a link between heaven and Earth

    • King consulted spirits of ancestors to find answers to problems

    • Oracle Bones

      • Sheep or goat bones with questions written on them.

      • Bones were heated

      • Cracks revealed answers from the Heavens.


Pictographs
Pictographs

  • Pictures of objects

  • Early Chinese writing used pictographs


Ideographs
Ideographs

  • Symbols to express ideas


Mandate of heaven
Mandate of Heaven

  • Heaven granted a ruler a right to rule.

    • The people, in turn, obeyed the ruler and were loyal and obedient.



Chinese social structure
Chinese Social Structure

  • Based on four Confucians ideas:

    • 1) Age

    • 2) Sex

    • 3) Education

    • 4) Occupation


Chinese social structure1
Chinese Social Structure

Social Pyramid:

  • Emperor

  • Scholars;Government Officials

  • GENTRY: Landowners; Warlords

  • Peasants

  • Merchants; Artisans

  • Soldiers

Note: Amount of people in class indicated by size of word; Importance indicated from top to bottom.


Gentry
Gentry

  • Wealthy landowners educated in Confucian classics.

    • The Leisure Class

      • Looked down on those who had to perform physical work

      • Let fingernails grow to to show they did not do physical work.

  • THREE ROLES:

    • 1) Collected taxes

    • 2) Maintained the peace

    • 3) Advised the Emperor


Peasants
Peasants

  • Worked small plots of land

    • Some owned the land

    • Some worked as tenant farmers

    • Some were landless laborers

      • Made cloth; furniture; etc.


Social mobility
Social Mobility

  • Artisans; Merchants; Peasants

    • Wealth was used to educate their sons.

      • If a young man could pass the examinations he could become a government official


Joint family
Joint Family

  • Included multiple generations.

    • Oldest male had the most authority.


Filial piety
Filial Piety

  • Family’s interests are placed before ones own.

    • Parents expect complete obedience and respect.


Respect for ancestors
Respect for Ancestors

  • Extended Family:

    • Included living; dead; future generations.

  • 3 Primary Forms:

    • Provided them with food, clothing, and other necessities.

    • Family created sons so that traditions could be continued.

    • Held memorial services to ancestors.


  • Arranged marriages
    Arranged Marriages

    • Parents arrange marriages for their children.

      • What to base it on?

        • Peasant:

          • Woman who could work hard and bear many children

        • Gentry:

          • Resources of a bride’s family

    • Dowry

      • Groom paid the bride’s family.


    Chinese view of women
    Chinese View of Women

    • View of Women:

      • Inferior to men.

      • Valued for work

      • Valued for ability to bear children

    • Foot Binding

      • Feet of women were bound

      • Kept feet small

      • Large feet were unattractive


    Right:

    Bound foot.

    Below:

    Schema of an x-ray comparison between an unbound and bound foot


    China s dynasties

    China’s Dynasties

    Xia – Shang – Zhou – Qin – Han – Tang – Song – Yuan – Ming – Qing


    Xia

    • Founder of Dynasty: Yu

      • According to legend, Yu tamed the Hwang He and founded the Xia Dynasty

    Location =


    Shang 1650 bce
    Shang 1650 BCE

    • Origin of Dynasty:

      • Strong rulers over the agricultural

        lands of China.

    • Religious/Philosophical Ideas:

      • Dynastic rule

      • Son of Heaven

      • Emperor was the link between Earth and Heaven (Heaven - the home of many Gods)

  • Achievements:

    • Form of writing (pictographs; ideographs)

    • Accurate calender

    • Bronze (weapons; everyday goods)


  • Zhou 1027 bce
    Zhou 1027 BCE

    • Origin of Dynasty:

      • Invaders from northwest

    • Political Idea (Justification for Rise to Power):

      • Mandate of Heaven


    Qin

    • Origin of Dynasty (Founder):

      • Emperor conquered his neighbors and called himself the Shi Huangdi (“First Emperor”)

    • Religious/Philosophical Ideas:

      • Legalistic Principals

    • Achievements:

      • Established a single:

        • code of law

        • uniform weights and measures

        • currency

      • Built first Great Wall


    Han

    • Origin of Dynasty (Founder):

      • Liu Bang (lyoh bong)

    • Religious/Philosophical Ideas:

      • Central control; Confucian learning

  • Contact with Outside World:

    • Silk Road = Trade with west

      • Key route of trade through central asia’s deserts to Persia

        • Called silk road because of the demand for Chinese silk.

        • Buddhism introduced to China via the Silk Road

  • Achievements:

    • Built second Great Wall

    • Learned to make paper

    • Set up civil service exam system.

    • Created a prosperous trade route (The Silk Road)

    • Medical Treatments (acupuncture)


  • Tang song dynasties
    Tang & Song Dynasties

    • General Description:

      • The “Golden Ages” of China

    • Religious/Philosophical Ideas:

      • Embraced Confucianism.

      • Perfected Exam System.

      • Concentrated Power among the Scholar Elite

    • Achievements:

      • The sternpost rudder

      • Magnetic compass

      • Became a naval power

      • Block printing

      • Moveable type (literature flourished)

    Tang

    Song


    Yuan

    • Origin of Dynasty (founders):

    • Mongols

      • Ghenghiz Khan

        • Conquered land from the Pacific all the way westward to the Danube River in Europe.

      • Kublai Khan

        • Gave a Chinese name to his dynasty: Yuan

    • Relationship with Chinese:

      • Did not want Chinese in powerful positions

      • Wanted to preserve Mongol culture

      • Chinese resented foreign rule

    • Achievements:

      • Marco Polo visits China

      • Infrastructure

        • Roads; Messenger System; Trade Routes.

    Kublai Khan


    Ming

    • Origin of Dynasty (founder):

      • Zhu Yuanzhang (joo yoo ahn jahng)

        • Called himself Ming Hung Wu

        • 1368 – Captures Beijing from Mongols

        • Peasant general claims mandate of heaven.

    • Religious/Philosophical Ideas:

      • Revived Confucian Learning

    • Contact with Outside World:

    • Achievements:

    • Built Imperial Palace “The Forbidden City”

    Hung Wu


    Qing

    • Origin of Dynasty (founder):

      • Established by Manchu invaders.

    • Religious/Philosophical Ideas:

      • Forbid marrying with Chinese

      • Forbid wearing Chinese clothing.

    • Contact with Outside World:

      • Wished to limit contact with foreigners


    Chinese philosophies
    Chinese Philosophies

    • 4 Key Philosophies

      • Confucianism

      • Buddhism

      • Taoism

      • Legalism


    Confucius confucianism
    Confucius (Confucianism)

    • Facial Expression:

      • Sour

    • Attitude toward Life:

      • Life is sour.

      • Life would be better with strict rules.

      • Strict order.


    Buddha buddhism
    Buddha (Buddhism)

    • Facial Expression:

      • Bitter

    • Attitude toward life:

      • Bitter

      • Necessary to transcend this world.

        • Physical world filled with illusions and desires that lead to suffering.


    Lao tzu taoism
    Lao Tzu (Taoism)

    • Facial Expression:

      • Smiling

    • Attitude toward life:

      • World governed by laws of nature.

      • Natural order to the world, man should not interfere or else the world falls out of balance.


    Confucianism
    Confucianism

    • Birth of Confucius:

      • 551 BCE

    • Confucianism:

      • Stresses the need to develop responsibility and moral character through rigid ruled of behavior.


    Confucius birthday
    Confucius’ Birthday

    • Teacher’s Day

      • In mainland China (People's Republic of China) Confucius is honored on the anniversary of his death - October 1st.

      • In Taiwan, he his honored on the anniversary of his birth - September 28th. His birthday is a legal holiday in Taiwan. It is referred to as “Teacher's Day” since Confucius is considered the greatest teacher in Chinese history.


    The analects
    The Analects

    • record of the words and acts of the philosopher Confucius and his disciples.


    Confucianism1
    Confucianism

    • Ren

      • BEING

      • (The Golden Rule) – do onto others as…

        • Primary teaching of Confucius

          • “LOVE OTHERS”

    • Yi

      • DOING/MEANS

      • (Behave properly/ fulfill responsibilities)

        • Righteousness

    • Li

      • ENDS

      • (Self Interest)

        • Profit; gain; advantage (one should not practice this)

    Li


    Confucius relationships
    Confucius’ Relationships

    • Five Relationships

      • Purpose: to govern human society

        • 1) Ruler and ruled

        • 2) Father and son

        • 3) Older brother and younger brother

        • 4) husband and wife

        • 5)* friend and friend

      • *In all but (5), one person has authority over another and the superior should set an example for the inferior.


    Buddhism
    Buddhism

    • Buddha’s Given Name:

      • Prince Siddharta Guatama

    • Buddha’s Birth:

      • Where:

        • Ancient India

      • When:

        • 553 B.C.E.

    • Buddha –

      • “Awakened One”

    Buddha


    Buddhism1
    Buddhism

    • The Four Noble Truths:

      1. Life is filled with suffering.

      2. Suffering is caused by people’s wants.

      3. Suffering can be ended if people stop wanting things.

      4. To stop wanting things people must follow the Eightfold Path ( 8 basic laws)


    Buddhism2
    Buddhism

    • The Middle Way

      • Eightfold Path was designed to guide people without making life too strict or too easy.

      • The Middle Way-

        • The name Buddhists call lived guided by the laws of the Eightfold Path.

    Wheel with eight spokes –

    a symbol for following the eightfold path.


    Taoism
    Taoism

    • Main Themes:

      • Intuition

      • Simplicity

      • Spontaneity

      • The way of nature


    Taosim key definitions
    Taosim – Key Definitions

    • Tao: The way of nature of the universe

    • Yin/Yang: balance of opposing forces

    • Wu Wei: (non-doing) behavior that is spontaneous, natural, and effortless. (Going with the flow)

    • Pu: (The uncarved block) things in their natural state.

    • Te: (the flowing power) virtue obtained through balance, compassion, and living simply.

    • Ch’i: cosmic energy


    Yin yang

    Masculine

    Active

    Light

    Warmth

    Strong

    Heaven

    Sun

    Feminine

    Passive

    Darkness

    Cold

    Weak

    Earth

    Moon

    Yin/Yang


    Taoism1
    Taoism

    • Lao Zi (6th-3rd Century BCE)

      • Creator of the foundation of Taoist philosophy.

      • Legend: Born immaculately as an 82 year old man

      • Lived simply in mountains, but put under guard and forced to write his life’s wisdom.

    • Important literature:

      • Tao Te Ching

        • Written by Lao Zi and several other teachers.

        • Basic text of Taoist thought.


    Taoist influences on chinese culture
    Taoist Influences on Chinese Culture

    • Acupuncture

    • I Ching

    • Tai Chi

    • Feng Shui


    Acupuncture
    Acupuncture

    • 200 year old medical procedure that is based on the concept of balancing ch’I (the energy that flows throughout the body) by puncturing the skin with hair-thin needles at particular points


    I ching
    I Ching

    • An ancient scripture about the yin/yang used by Taoist and Confucianists as a form of divination - (to gain insight into a question)


    Tai chi
    Tai Chi

    • A set of smooth, flowing exercises used to improve or maintain health, create a sense of relaxation and keep the ch’i flowing.



    Feng shui
    Feng Shui

    • The ancient Chinese art of placement. Its goal is to achieve harmony, comfort, and balance, first in ones environment and then in one’s life.


    Legalism
    Legalism

    • Law is the supreme authority.

    • 3 Components:

      • Fa

        • Law

      • Shi

        • Legitimacy of Rule

      • Shu

        • Arts of the ruler

          *Laws enforced by strict reward/punishment.


    Legalism1
    Legalism

    • The Two Handles:

      • 1. Reward

      • 2. Punishment

        • People not smart enough to know how to behave so a system of reward and punishment must be in place.


    Legalism2
    Legalism

    • Founders of Legalism:

    • Han Feizi

      • Han Feizi – the main text of legalism.

      • Legalism would unite China.

    • Shangzi

      • Saw a strong government according to law as a solution to growing populations and limited resources.

    Feizi


    Test review
    Test Review

    • Traditional China

    • Dynasties

    • Philosophies


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