Managing diabetes
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Managing Diabetes. What Is Diabetes? and Diabetes ABCs. Types of Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Usually diagnosed in children and young adults Type 2 diabetes Most common form Most often diagnosed in adults Gestational diabetes Can appear during pregnancy

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Managing Diabetes

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Managing diabetes

Managing Diabetes

  • What Is Diabetes?

  • and

  • Diabetes ABCs

Types of diabetes

Types of Diabetes

  • Type 1 diabetes

  • Usually diagnosed in children and young adults

  • Type 2 diabetes

  • Most common form

  • Most often diagnosed in adults

  • Gestational diabetes

  • Can appear during pregnancy

  • High risk for type 2 diabetes later in life

Managing your diabetes

Managing Your Diabetes

  • Most of diabetes day-to-day care is up to YOU

  • Choosing what you eat

  • Including physical activity in your routine

  • Taking your medications

  • Keeping track of your blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol numbers

  • Learning all you can about diabetes

Managing diabetes


  • A = A1C(pronounced A-one-C)

  • Provides average blood sugar for the past 2-3 months

  • Recommended level of below 7 for most people with diabetes

  • Measure at least two times each year

Blood pressure

Blood Pressure

  • B = Blood Pressure

  • Measures the force of blood inside your blood vessels

  • High blood pressure can lead to heart attack, stroke, eye problems and kidney disease

  • Blood pressure of below 130/80 recommended



  • C = Cholesterol

  • Fat in your blood - 3 important numbers:

    • HDL- “good” cholesterol

      Protects your heart

    • LDL- “bad” cholesterol

      Clogs blood vessels

    • Triglycerides – fat that increases risk for heart attack and stroke

Managing diabetes1

Managing Diabetes

  • Getting the Best Care for Your Diabetes

Every visit

Every Visit

  • Every Visit

  • Check/Review Blood Glucose Results

  • Check Blood Pressure

  • Review Meal Plan

  • Review Activity Level

  • Check Weight

  • Ask About Smoking Status

Every 3 6 months

Every 3-6 Months

  • At Least Every 3-6 Months

  • Check A1C

    • Provides average blood sugar for the past 2-3 months

    • Recommended level of below 7 for most people with diabetes

At least once a year

At Least Once a Year

  • At Least Once a Year Check:

  • Cholesterol

  • Microalbumin

  • Feet

  • Eyes

  • Flu Shot

  • Pneumonia Vaccine Status

Managing diabetes2

Managing Diabetes

  • All About Blood Glucose

Blood glucose

Blood Glucose

  • Keeping your Blood Glucose in the recommended target range can prevent or delay the long-term health problems caused by diabetes

Blood glucose1

Blood Glucose

  • What are the blood glucose targets for people with diabetes?

Blood glucose2

Blood Glucose

  • What makes blood glucose rise?

    • More food or more carbs than usual

    • Inactivity

    • Not enough diabetes medications

    • Side effects of other medications

    • Infection or illness such as a cold or flu

    • Stress

    • Changes in hormone levels

Blood glucose3

Blood Glucose

  • What makes blood glucose fall?

    • Less food and less carbs than usual

    • Missing a meal or snack

    • Drinking alcoholic beverages, especially on an empty stomach

    • Extra activity

    • Too much diabetes medications

    • Side effects of other medications

High blood glucose

High Blood Glucose

  • If your blood glucose is too high?

  • Make notes in your record book (what time? what did you eat? how active were you? etc.)

  • Talk to your health care team about adjustments to your meal plan, physical activity or medications

Low blood glucose

Low Blood Glucose

  • If your blood glucose is too low?

  • Called hypoglycemia

  • When blood glucose drops below 70

Low blood glucose1

Low Blood Glucose

  • Treating low blood glucose

  • Check your blood glucose level; if below 70 eat one of following:

    • 2 to 5 glucose tablets

    • ½ cup (4 ounces) of fruit juice

    • ½ cup (4 ounces) of regular soft drink

    • 6 to 8 ounces milk

    • 5 to 7 pieces hard candy

    • 2 teaspoons of sugar or honey

Managing diabetes3

Managing Diabetes

  • Medications



  • Most people with diabetes need medications to reach their target blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol (ABC) targets.

Medications blood glucose

Medications: Blood Glucose

  • Medication option plans for type 2 diabetes:

    • One type of diabetes pill

    • Two types of diabetes pills

    • Diabetes pill(s) plusinsulin

Medications blood glucose1

Medications: Blood Glucose

  • Diabetes pills work best when used together with meal planning and exercise. The combination of all three work together to lower your blood glucose levels.

Your medications

Your Medications

  • You may need multiple medicines to manage your ABCs.

  • The more medications you take the harder it is to keep track of them.

Managing diabetes4

Managing Diabetes

  • An Ounce of Prevention – Avoiding Complications



  • How to prevent or delay:

    • Heart Disease

    • Eye Disease

    • Kidney Disease

    • Nerve Disease

    • Skin Problems

    • Dental Problems

Warning signs

Warning Signs

  • 2 out of 3 people with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke

  • Know the warning signs of a heart attack and stroke

  • If you have warning signs, call 911 right away

Managing diabetes5

Managing Diabetes

  • Losing Weight

Why lose

Why Lose?

  • Losing weight can help you improve blood glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol levels (the ABCs).

  • A loss of only 10 to 15 pounds can be beneficial.

Cutting calories

Cutting Calories

  • Reduce serving sizes

  • Take less than usual

  • Use smaller plates and bowls

  • In restaurants

    • Order the smallest portion

    • Split entrees and desserts with others

    • Take some home for later

Cutting calories1

Cutting Calories

  • Select lower-calorie items

  • Include a fruit or vegetable with each meal or snack

  • Drink water or calorie-free drinks instead of regular soft drinks and juice

Planning healthy meals

Planning Healthy Meals

  • Rate Your Plate Goal:

  • ¼ is carbohydrate

  • ¼ is meat or meat substitute

  • ½ is vegetables

  • May also add another carbohydrate such as a glass or milk or a slice of bread

Rate your plate

Rate Your Plate

Keeping a record

Keeping a Record

  • Records helps keep you on target

  • Write down

  • Everything you eat and drink including serving sizes

  • Your physical activity – what kind and how long

  • Your weekly weight

Managing diabetes6

Managing Diabetes

  • All About Physical Activity

What can physical activity do

What Can Physical Activity Do?

  • Lower blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol (the ABCs)

  • Lower your risk for heart disease and stroke

  • Relieve stress

  • Help insulin work better

  • Strengthen your heart, muscles, and bones

  • Improve your blood circulation and tone your muscles

  • Keep your body and joints flexible

What activities are best

What Activities Are Best?

  • Best to include four kinds of activities:

  • Being active throughout the day

  • Aerobic activity, such as brisk walking, swimming or dancing

  • Strength training, such as lifting light weights

  • Flexibility exercises, such as stretching

Getting started

Getting Started

  • Have a medical checkup and find out which activities are safe for you.

  • Review the symptoms of low blood glucose and know how to treat.

  • Plan how to have water and snacks handy during activity.

  • Wear medical identification.

  • Wear well-fitting shoes.

Managing diabetes7

Managing Diabetes

  • Foot

  • Care

Foot care

Foot Care

  • Diabetes increases your risk for foot problems:

  • Nerve damage

    • from high blood glucose levels

    • called diabetic neuropathy

    • causes pain, tingling or numbness

  • Peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

    • blood vessels in feet and legs narrowed or blocked by fatty deposits

Foot care1

Foot Care

  • Keep your feet safe by

  • Keeping your blood glucose levels on target

  • Taking care of your feet every day – use your Foot Care Checklist

Foot exams

Foot Exams

  • At least once a year have:

    • a complete foot exam to check skin, muscles, bones and blood circulation

    • a monofilament test to check the nerves in your feet

Managing diabetes8

Managing Diabetes

  • Learning How to Change Habits

Ready to change

Ready to Change

  • Make a Plan that is

    • Realistic

    • Achievable

    • As specific as possible

  • Ask your health care team for help

Helpful hints

Helpful Hints

  • Remember:

  • it takes time to make new habits, but your patience and persistence will pay off in the long run.

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