Ecology. Ecology. Ecology is the study of the relationships between living things and their interactions with the physical environment. All life is found in a thin band that surrounds the planet called the Biosphere .
Ecology is the study of the relationships between living things and their interactions with the physical environment.
All life is found in a thin band that surrounds the planet called the Biosphere.
Biosphere is made of biotic factors (living)
The biosphere is broken up into regions based on climate, & the resulting organisms.
The ecosystems are regions inside biomes that have the same climate.
Ecosystems in different areas of Earth may have different organisms.
Are all the living things that are found in an ecosystem.
A forest community would have trees, deer, birds, bacteria, etc
All the creatures that are found in the same area and have the potential to reproduce together is considered a population
Deer pop., tick pop., Pine tree pop.
individual of a species
An organism’s niche is what it does in that habitat (its lifestyle)
e.g. eats a specific type of seed on a bush, hunts a specific prey
The main relationship between organisms is based on energy
Organisms are placed into levels based on how they get their energy.
The levels that organisms are placed into are called trophic levels (feeding levels).
Producers- organisms that convert sunlight into chemical energy (glucose)
Consumers- organisms that must eat other things for energy
Herbivores- (primary consumers) eats only plants or producers
Carnivores- (secondary consumers) eats only other consumers
Ominvores- eats both producers and consumers
Decomposers- breaks down large molecules into smaller ones to be reused by producers.
E.g. bacteria and fungi
Because of the loss of energy at each trophic level, there is usually a larger mass of living tissue at the lower levels than at the upper levels.
Symbiosis is a relationship between any two living things.
There are four main types of relationships.
The relationships between populations have an effect on their size and success.
There are many factors that help to determine the size of a population
There are two things that cause the population to grow:
Births and immigration (individuals entering the population from another population)
Death and emigration (individuals leaving the population)
Exponential Growth Curve
Limiting factors will control how large a population can grow.
Limiting factors come in two forms
The larger the population, the greater the effect. (food, water, space, disease, mates, predators)
Population size has no effect (natural disaster, climate, temperature)
If a population has sufficient resources, it will grow at an exponential rate.
There will be many births and few deaths
Eventually the population reaches the limit the environment can support. Limiting factors cause more deaths (starvation, disease, malnutrition)
Logistical Growth Curve
Currently, the human population is growing at an exponential rate.
Habitat destruction, pollution, greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, and endangered species