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HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx. Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat Nasal Cavity and Breathing Mouth and Chewing Throat and Swallowing Larynx and Singing . Sagittal Section Head. Cranial cavity Brain/Spinal cord Vertebral bodies Epaxial muscles Hard/soft palate Oral cavity

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HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx

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Head neck ii throat pharynx l.jpg

HEAD/NECK II: Throat/ Pharynx

  • Overview: Sagittal view of nose/mouth/throat

  • Nasal Cavity and Breathing

  • Mouth and Chewing

  • Throat and Swallowing

  • Larynx and Singing

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Sagittal section head l.jpg

Sagittal Section Head

  • Cranial cavity

  • Brain/Spinal cord

  • Vertebral bodies

  • Epaxial muscles

  • Hard/soft palate

  • Oral cavity

  • Esophagus

  • Trachea

  • Epiglottis

  • Naso-

  • Oro-

  • Laringo-

pharynx

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Nose nasal cavity and breathing l.jpg

Nose/Nasal Cavity and Breathing

Function:

  • Inlet for air to lung

  • Warm/filter air

    (mucous membranes on ethmoidconchae)

  • Smell

    (nerve endings on nasal membranes)

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Conchae of ethmoid bone l.jpg

Conchae of Ethmoid Bone

  • Scroll-like bones

  • Covered in mucous membrane for

    • Smell

    • Filter air

    • Warm air

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Sinuses l.jpg

Sinuses

  • All connected to nasal cavity

  • All lined with mucous membranes

  • Cold/allergies—fill with mucous=sinus headache

  • Maxillary

  • Ethmoid

  • Frontal

  • Sphenoid

M&M, Fig. 7.11

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Mouth oral cavity and chewing l.jpg

Mouth/Oral Cavity and Chewing

  • FUNCTION

  • Bite and chew food

  • Form words

  • Taste

  • Kiss

COMPONENTS

  • Lips

  • Cheeks

  • Palate

  • Jaws and teeth

  • Salivary glands

Lined by thick stratified squamous epithelium (almost no keratin)

Vestibule—in front of teeth

Oral cavity proper—behind teeth

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Slide7 l.jpg

Lips

FUNCTION

  • Close mouth

  • Keep food in

  • Make speech sounds

  • Tactile

    STRUCTURE

  • Core of sphinchter-shape skeletal muscle (orbicularis oris)

  • “Red margin” transition from keratinized skin to oral mucosa

    • Red because clear color lets underlying vessels show through

    • No sweat or sebaceous glands, thus needs to be wet (or lip balm)

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Cheeks l.jpg

Cheeks

FUNCTION

  • Form side of moth

    STRUCTURE

  • Buccinator muscle—instrumental in swallowing, connects back to pharyngeal constrictors

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Palate l.jpg

Palate

  • Hard palate anterior

    • Maxilla

    • Palatine

  • Soft palate is posterior extension, soft tissue

  • Palatoglossal arch

    (palate to tongue)

  • Palatopharyngeal arch

    (palate to pharynx)

  • Tonsils between arches

  • Uvula…???

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


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Jaws

FUNCTION

  • Hold teeth

  • Occlude in chewing

  • STRUCTURE

  • Upper jaw—maxillary bone

  • Lower jaw--mandible

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Teeth l.jpg

Teeth

  • Deciduous teeth—”milk” or “baby” teeth

  • Emerge 6 mos. – 2 yrs.

  • Replaced by permanent teeth 6-12 yrs.

  • Wisdom teeth (3rd molar) erupts 17-25 yrs or remains in jaw

  • Key to healthy teeth and gums:

  • Flossing

  • Visiting dentist regularly (every 6 mos.) and starting at young age (3-4 yrs.)

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


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Structure of individual tooth—it’s alive!!

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


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Jaw muscles

  • Masseter, temporalis—elevate mandible (“close jaw”)

  • Medial pterygoid—lateral (side-to-side) chewing

  • Lateral pterygoid—translates mandible anteriorly (part of opening)

  • Digastric (not shown)—depresses mandible (“opens jaw”)

  • Chewing is circular motion

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


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Tongue

FUNCTION

  • Position food between teeth

  • Form words in speech

    STRUCTURE

  • Intrinsic muscles (allow for shape change with fibers in various directions)

  • Extrinsic muscles—attach tongue to skeleton

    • Genioglossus

    • Hyoglossus

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


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Salivary glands

  • Intrinsic—all over mucous membranes of tongue, palate, lips, lining of cheek

  • Extrinsic—secrete more saliva when eating (or anticipating)

    • Parotid

    • Submandibular

    • Sublingual

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Saliva l.jpg

Saliva

  • Moistens mouth

  • Dissolves food to be tasted

  • Wets and binds food

  • Contains amylase to start starch digestion (saltine to sugar experiment)

  • Contains bicarbonate to neutralize cavity-causing acids produced by bacteria

  • Contains anti-bacterial and anti-viral enzymes and cyanide-like compound to kill harmful micro-organisms

  • Contains proteins that stimulate growth of beneficial bacteria in the mouth

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Throat pharynx and swallowing l.jpg

Air

Food

PHARYNX

Trachea

Esophagus

Throat/Pharynx and Swallowing

  • Back of mouth to larynx

  • Food and air mix and cross

  • STRUCTURES

  • Entry—pharyngeal arches

  • Exit—glottis (epiglottis is lid)

  • Pharyngeal constrictors squeeze food through

  • When it goes wrong—choking!!

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Pharynx and swallowing l.jpg

Pharynx and Swallowing

Focus on muscles and arrangement of mouth cavity, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, trachea

Pharynx/Swallowing in detail!!

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Descent of the larynx l.jpg

Descent of the larynx

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Larynx and singing l.jpg

Larynx and Singing

FUNCTION

  • Channel air out of trachea

  • Vibrate to produce sound for speech/song

    STRUCTURES

  • External skeleton or frame (cartilage)

  • Internal vocal cords and associated muscles

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Skeleton of larynx l.jpg

Skeleton of larynx

  • Cricothyroid ligament is usual site of emergency tracheotomy (feel on self—SURFACE ANATOMY)

M&M, Fig. 21.5

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


Vocal cords l.jpg

Vocal cords

M&M, Fig. 21.6

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx


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