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Double Trigger:. Daniel Putman–Student Researcher and Laura Middlesworth –Faculty Collaborator. Does it Explain Differences in State Level Foreclosure Starts?.

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double trigger

Double Trigger:

Daniel Putman–Student Researcher and Laura Middlesworth –Faculty Collaborator

Does it Explain Differences in State Level Foreclosure Starts?

Support for this project is from student differential tuition funds through the UWEC Summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program.

double trigger theory
Double Trigger Theory
  • Declining House Value vs. Income Shock
  • Bhutta, Dokko, and Shan (2010) found that the "median borrowerdoes not walk away until equity has fallen to -62 percent of the house value.”
  • A combination of falling house values and rising unemployment rates explain more than each variable could alone
methodology baseline regression
Methodology & Baseline Regression
  • MBAA National Delinquency Survey
  • 4th Quarter 2009 until 1st Quarter 2011
  • Panel Least Squares

Foreclosure Starts = ε +  β1x1 + β2x2 + β3x3

  • x1 = Number of Quarters Since Peak
  • x2 = Three Month Unemployment Average (U-3)
  • x3 = “Double Trigger” Interaction term
    • Demeaned
double trigger term
Double Trigger Term:

β3x3 = β3(x1-meanx1)×(x2-meanx2)

  • x1 = Number of Quarters Since Peak
  • x2 = Three Month Unemployment Average
empirical results
Empirical Results

Subprime Foreclosure Starts

x β

3 Month Unemployment Ave. 0.058**

Number of Quarters Since Peak 0.088***

Double Trigger Term 0.016***

Affordability Index (Marginal, Non-Significant)

Regional Dummy VariablesWhite Period Standard Errors

Significance: * (0.1), ** (0.05), *** (.01)

results cont
Results (Cont.)

Prime Foreclosure Starts

x β3 Month Unemployment Ave. 0.069***Number of Quarters Since Peak 0.057***Double Trigger Term 0.012***

Affordability Index (Non-Significant)Regional Dummy VariablesWhite Period Fixed Effects

unemployment and underemployment
Unemployment and Underemployment
  • U6 -“total unemployed [U3], plus all marginally attached workers, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force”
  • U5 – “total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other marginally attached workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force” (BLS)

U = U3 + U6 – U5

results cont1
Results (Cont.)

Subprime Foreclosure Starts

x βNumber of Quarters Since Peak 0.082***Unemployment and Underemployment 0.057**Double Trigger Term 0.012***High Cost Variable (Non-Significant)Regional Dummy VariablesWhite Period Fixed Effects

results cont2
Results (Cont.)

Prime Foreclosure Starts x βNumber of Quarters Since Peak 0.046***Unemployment and Underemployment 0.058***Double Trigger Term 0.009***

High Cost Variable (Non-Significant)Regional Dummy VariablesWhite Period Fixed Effects

additional variables
Additional Variables
  • Division Dummy Variables
  • Affordability Index
  • Judicial Foreclosure Laws
  • High Cost Index 
  • Recourse Laws
  • Bankruptcy Exemptions
policy implications
Policy Implications
  • Hardest Hit Fund
  • Implemented shortly after recession
    • Largest fall in housing prices
    • Largest unemployment problem
    • Combination
  •  Possible loan modifications
    • Address falling house prices
    • Underwater house prices
  • Meaningful as a reason for Policy Intervention
further research msa level study
Further Research: MSA Level Study
  • Localized Housing Markets
  • Greater sensitivity to data
    • Legal variables (state and local level)
  • Panel VAR (Vector Auto Regression)
    • Endogeny of prices, unemployment
citations
Citations
  • Neil Bhutta, Jane Dokko, and Hui Shan.The Depth of Negative Equity and Mortgage DefaultDecisions. Federal Reserve Board of Governors.May 2010.
  • “Alternative Measures of Labor Underutilization for States." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. <http://www.bls.gov/lau/stalt.htm>.
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