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Crop Rotations – Is Winter Wheat the " Dark Horse"?. Dave Hooker, PhD Bill Deen , PhD Dept of Plant Agriculture/Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph. @cropdoc2. Email: [email protected] , Twitter: @cropdoc2. Outline. Overview of long term trials – Elora , Ridgetown

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Crop Rotations –

Is Winter Wheat

the "Dark Horse"?

Dave Hooker, PhD

Bill Deen, PhD

Dept of Plant Agriculture/Ridgetown Campus

University of Guelph

@cropdoc2

Email: [email protected], Twitter: @cropdoc2

outline
Outline
  • Overview of long term trials – Elora, Ridgetown
  • Breakdown of winter wheat contributions in the rotation
  • Question…..Is winter wheat the dark horse?

“A dark horse is a little-known person or thing that emerges to prominence, especially in a competition of some sort or a contestant that seems unlikely to succeed.”

  • Rotation Budget
slide3

Acknowledgments

+ Technical Staff, graduate students, summer students

elora long term rotation 2011
EloraLong-term rotation 2011

CT

NT

  • Initiated in 1980
  • Rotations – CCCC, AAAA, CCAA, CCSS, CCSW, CCSW(rc), CCOB, CCO(rc)B(rc)
  • Conventional tillage and no-till

Corn

Soybean

Alfalfa

Barley

Wheat

slide5

Ridgetown Long-Term Tillage-Rotation

  • Established 1995 (by Doug Young)
  • 5 Crop Rotations
    • C-C
    • S-S
    • C-S
    • C-S-W
    • S-W
  • 4 N treatments in corn and wheat
  • Red clover underseeded in wheat plots
  • Technical: Mr. Scott Jay
slide7

Soybean Yields at Ridgetown 2012

Seed Yield (bu/ac)

NT

NT

MP

MP

NT

MP

S-S

C-S

C-S-W

Rotation

slide8

Corn Yields at Ridgetown in 2012

Grain Yield (bu/ac)

NT

NT

MP

MP

NT

MP

C-C

C-S

C-S-W

Rotation

slide9

Messages: Elora and Ridgetown Trials

  • Complex rotations  higher yield, better soil properties at Elora and Ridgetown
      • Benefits of red clover in rotation
      • Benefits of wheat in rotation
      • Demonstrated soybean a negative on soil properties and yield
      • Demo lower optimal N rates at Ridgetown (not assessed at Elora)
  • MB > NT at Elora; MB > or = No-till at Ridgetown
  • Rotation and tillage interact, especially at Elora (i.e., complex rotations are less responsive to tillage)
  • Rotation >> tillage on soil carbon/soil properties
  • Rotation influences sustainable residue removal rates
slide10

Wheat is the opportunity to improve complexity of corn-soybean-dominated rotations

  • Is wheat a weak sister in a corn-soy-wheat rotation?
  • But is wheat the dark horse?
slide12

1. The “Rotation Effect”

Wheat on Corn Yields Ridgetown 2009-12

2012

2010

2011

2009

Grain Yield (bu/ac)

C-S-W

C-S-W

C-S-W

C-S-W

C-C

C-C

C-C

C-S

C-S

C-S

C-C

C-S

Note: Mean separation within year (p=0.05)

slide13

1. The “Rotation Effect”

Wheat on Soybean Yields Ridgetown 2009-12

2012

2011

2010

2009

Seed Yield (bu/ac)

C-S-W

C-S-W

C-S-W

C-S-W

S-S

S-S

S-S

C-S

S-S

C-S

C-S

C-S

Rotation

Averaged Across Tillage and Corn N treatments at Ridgetown. Est. 1991; letters within year statistically different at p=0.05

Source: Hooker et al., 2011 (UofG Ridgetown)

Note: Mean separation within year (p=0.05)

slide14

1. The “Rotation Effect”

Wheat on First Year Corn Yields Elora 2000-2011

slide15

1. The “Rotation Effect”

Wheat on Soybean Yields Elora 1980-2011

slide17

Conventional-Till Corn Response to N and Rotation

Ridgetown Long-term Tillage-Rotation 2009-2012

C-S-W(rc)

C-S-W

Grain Yield (bu ac-1)

C-C

C-S

Fertilizer N Rate

slide21

Corn Yields after Wheat +/- Red Clover,

Ridgetown 2010-12

2012

Ave

2010

2011

Grain Yield (bu/ac)

C-S-W(rc)

C-S-W(rc)

C-S-W(rc)

C-S-W(rc)

C-S-W

C-S-W

C-S-W

C-S-W

slide22

Soybean Yields with Wheat +/- Red Clover,

Ridgetown 2010-12

Seed Yield (bu/ac)

C-S-W(rc)

C-S-W(rc)

C-S-W

C-S-W

S-S

S-S

C-S

C-S

Conventional Till

No-Till

Note: Mean separation within tillage system (p=0.05)

slide24

Double Crop Soybean Yield Survey 2012

(bu/ac)

FAIL

FAIL

FAIL

23

18

FAIL

23

25

32

FAIL

28

36

16

32

24

42

21

22

30

45

@cropdoc2

slide25

Phenology DC soybean trial

Ridgetown, 2012

Oct 3 R6

Oct 3 R6

Aug 14 R1

July 20 V1

Yield 20 bu @ $14/bu = $280/ac +/-

Input costs = $175/ac +/-

cover crops
Cover Crops?

OMAFRA, 2012

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