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Crop Rotations – Is Winter Wheat the " Dark Horse"?. Dave Hooker, PhD Bill Deen , PhD Dept of Plant Agriculture/Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph. @cropdoc2. Email: [email protected] , Twitter: @cropdoc2. Outline. Overview of long term trials – Elora , Ridgetown

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Crop Rotations – Is Winter Wheat the " Dark Horse"?

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Crop Rotations –

Is Winter Wheat

the "Dark Horse"?

Dave Hooker, PhD

Bill Deen, PhD

Dept of Plant Agriculture/Ridgetown Campus

University of Guelph

@cropdoc2

Email: [email protected], Twitter: @cropdoc2


Outline

  • Overview of long term trials – Elora, Ridgetown

  • Breakdown of winter wheat contributions in the rotation

  • Question…..Is winter wheat the dark horse?

    “A dark horse is a little-known person or thing that emerges to prominence, especially in a competition of some sort or a contestant that seems unlikely to succeed.”

  • Rotation Budget


Acknowledgments

+ Technical Staff, graduate students, summer students


EloraLong-term rotation 2011

CT

NT

  • Initiated in 1980

  • Rotations – CCCC, AAAA, CCAA, CCSS, CCSW, CCSW(rc), CCOB, CCO(rc)B(rc)

  • Conventional tillage and no-till

Corn

Soybean

Alfalfa

Barley

Wheat


Ridgetown Long-Term Tillage-Rotation

  • Established 1995 (by Doug Young)

  • 5 Crop Rotations

    • C-C

    • S-S

    • C-S

    • C-S-W

    • S-W

  • 4 N treatments in corn and wheat

  • Red clover underseeded in wheat plots

  • Technical: Mr. Scott Jay


Corn Yields at Elora 2012


Soybean Yields at Ridgetown 2012

Seed Yield (bu/ac)

NT

NT

MP

MP

NT

MP

S-S

C-S

C-S-W

Rotation


Corn Yields at Ridgetown in 2012

Grain Yield (bu/ac)

NT

NT

MP

MP

NT

MP

C-C

C-S

C-S-W

Rotation


Messages: Elora and Ridgetown Trials

  • Complex rotations  higher yield, better soil properties at Elora and Ridgetown

    • Benefits of red clover in rotation

    • Benefits of wheat in rotation

    • Demonstrated soybean a negative on soil properties and yield

    • Demo lower optimal N rates at Ridgetown (not assessed at Elora)

  • MB > NT at Elora; MB > or = No-till at Ridgetown

  • Rotation and tillage interact, especially at Elora (i.e., complex rotations are less responsive to tillage)

  • Rotation >> tillage on soil carbon/soil properties

  • Rotation influences sustainable residue removal rates


    • Wheat is the opportunity to improve complexity of corn-soybean-dominated rotations

    • Is wheat a weak sister in a corn-soy-wheat rotation?

    • But is wheat the dark horse?


    Wheat: direct contribution to returns1. The “Rotation Effect”


    1. The “Rotation Effect”

    Wheat on Corn Yields Ridgetown 2009-12

    2012

    2010

    2011

    2009

    Grain Yield (bu/ac)

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-C

    C-C

    C-C

    C-S

    C-S

    C-S

    C-C

    C-S

    Note: Mean separation within year (p=0.05)


    1. The “Rotation Effect”

    Wheat on Soybean Yields Ridgetown 2009-12

    2012

    2011

    2010

    2009

    Seed Yield (bu/ac)

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    S-S

    S-S

    S-S

    C-S

    S-S

    C-S

    C-S

    C-S

    Rotation

    Averaged Across Tillage and Corn N treatments at Ridgetown. Est. 1991; letters within year statistically different at p=0.05

    Source: Hooker et al., 2011 (UofG Ridgetown)

    Note: Mean separation within year (p=0.05)


    1. The “Rotation Effect”

    Wheat on First Year Corn Yields Elora 2000-2011


    1. The “Rotation Effect”

    Wheat on Soybean Yields Elora 1980-2011


    Wheat: direct contribution to returns2. Corn N Requirements


    Conventional-Till Corn Response to N and Rotation

    Ridgetown Long-term Tillage-Rotation 2009-2012

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W

    Grain Yield (bu ac-1)

    C-C

    C-S

    Fertilizer N Rate


    Tillage x Rotation Impacts MERN

    Ridgetown 2010-2012


    Wheat: direct contribution to returns3. Value of Straw as a Commodity


    Wheat: direct contribution to returns4. Opportunity for Red Clover


    Corn Yields after Wheat +/- Red Clover,

    Ridgetown 2010-12

    2012

    Ave

    2010

    2011

    Grain Yield (bu/ac)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W


    Soybean Yields with Wheat +/- Red Clover,

    Ridgetown 2010-12

    Seed Yield (bu/ac)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    S-S

    S-S

    C-S

    C-S

    Conventional Till

    No-Till

    Note: Mean separation within tillage system (p=0.05)


    Wheat: direct contribution to returns5. Double Cropping Opportunities


    Double Crop Soybean Yield Survey 2012

    (bu/ac)

    FAIL

    FAIL

    FAIL

    23

    18

    FAIL

    23

    25

    32

    FAIL

    28

    36

    16

    32

    24

    42

    21

    22

    30

    45

    @cropdoc2


    Phenology DC soybean trial

    Ridgetown, 2012

    Oct 3 R6

    Oct 3 R6

    Aug 14 R1

    July 20 V1

    Yield 20 bu @ $14/bu = $280/ac +/-

    Input costs = $175/ac +/-


    Cover Crops?

    OMAFRA, 2012


    Is Winter Wheat the "Dark Horse"?What is the REAL Value of Wheat?


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