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Crop Rotations – Is Winter Wheat the " Dark Horse"?. Dave Hooker, PhD Bill Deen , PhD Dept of Plant Agriculture/Ridgetown Campus University of Guelph. @cropdoc2. Email: [email protected] , Twitter: @cropdoc2. Outline. Overview of long term trials – Elora , Ridgetown

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Crop Rotations – Is Winter Wheat the " Dark Horse"?

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Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

Crop Rotations –

Is Winter Wheat

the "Dark Horse"?

Dave Hooker, PhD

Bill Deen, PhD

Dept of Plant Agriculture/Ridgetown Campus

University of Guelph

@cropdoc2

Email: [email protected], Twitter: @cropdoc2


Outline

Outline

  • Overview of long term trials – Elora, Ridgetown

  • Breakdown of winter wheat contributions in the rotation

  • Question…..Is winter wheat the dark horse?

    “A dark horse is a little-known person or thing that emerges to prominence, especially in a competition of some sort or a contestant that seems unlikely to succeed.”

  • Rotation Budget


Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

Acknowledgments

+ Technical Staff, graduate students, summer students


Elora long term rotation 2011

EloraLong-term rotation 2011

CT

NT

  • Initiated in 1980

  • Rotations – CCCC, AAAA, CCAA, CCSS, CCSW, CCSW(rc), CCOB, CCO(rc)B(rc)

  • Conventional tillage and no-till

Corn

Soybean

Alfalfa

Barley

Wheat


Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

Ridgetown Long-Term Tillage-Rotation

  • Established 1995 (by Doug Young)

  • 5 Crop Rotations

    • C-C

    • S-S

    • C-S

    • C-S-W

    • S-W

  • 4 N treatments in corn and wheat

  • Red clover underseeded in wheat plots

  • Technical: Mr. Scott Jay


Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

Corn Yields at Elora 2012


Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

Soybean Yields at Ridgetown 2012

Seed Yield (bu/ac)

NT

NT

MP

MP

NT

MP

S-S

C-S

C-S-W

Rotation


Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

Corn Yields at Ridgetown in 2012

Grain Yield (bu/ac)

NT

NT

MP

MP

NT

MP

C-C

C-S

C-S-W

Rotation


Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

Messages: Elora and Ridgetown Trials

  • Complex rotations  higher yield, better soil properties at Elora and Ridgetown

    • Benefits of red clover in rotation

    • Benefits of wheat in rotation

    • Demonstrated soybean a negative on soil properties and yield

    • Demo lower optimal N rates at Ridgetown (not assessed at Elora)

  • MB > NT at Elora; MB > or = No-till at Ridgetown

  • Rotation and tillage interact, especially at Elora (i.e., complex rotations are less responsive to tillage)

  • Rotation >> tillage on soil carbon/soil properties

  • Rotation influences sustainable residue removal rates


  • Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    • Wheat is the opportunity to improve complexity of corn-soybean-dominated rotations

    • Is wheat a weak sister in a corn-soy-wheat rotation?

    • But is wheat the dark horse?


    Wheat direct contribution to returns 1 the rotation effect

    Wheat: direct contribution to returns1. The “Rotation Effect”


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    1. The “Rotation Effect”

    Wheat on Corn Yields Ridgetown 2009-12

    2012

    2010

    2011

    2009

    Grain Yield (bu/ac)

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-C

    C-C

    C-C

    C-S

    C-S

    C-S

    C-C

    C-S

    Note: Mean separation within year (p=0.05)


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    1. The “Rotation Effect”

    Wheat on Soybean Yields Ridgetown 2009-12

    2012

    2011

    2010

    2009

    Seed Yield (bu/ac)

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    S-S

    S-S

    S-S

    C-S

    S-S

    C-S

    C-S

    C-S

    Rotation

    Averaged Across Tillage and Corn N treatments at Ridgetown. Est. 1991; letters within year statistically different at p=0.05

    Source: Hooker et al., 2011 (UofG Ridgetown)

    Note: Mean separation within year (p=0.05)


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    1. The “Rotation Effect”

    Wheat on First Year Corn Yields Elora 2000-2011


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    1. The “Rotation Effect”

    Wheat on Soybean Yields Elora 1980-2011


    Wheat direct contribution to returns 2 corn n requirements

    Wheat: direct contribution to returns2. Corn N Requirements


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    Conventional-Till Corn Response to N and Rotation

    Ridgetown Long-term Tillage-Rotation 2009-2012

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W

    Grain Yield (bu ac-1)

    C-C

    C-S

    Fertilizer N Rate


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    Tillage x Rotation Impacts MERN

    Ridgetown 2010-2012


    Wheat direct contribution to returns 3 value of straw as a commodity

    Wheat: direct contribution to returns3. Value of Straw as a Commodity


    Wheat direct contribution to returns 4 opportunity for red clover

    Wheat: direct contribution to returns4. Opportunity for Red Clover


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    Corn Yields after Wheat +/- Red Clover,

    Ridgetown 2010-12

    2012

    Ave

    2010

    2011

    Grain Yield (bu/ac)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    C-S-W


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    Soybean Yields with Wheat +/- Red Clover,

    Ridgetown 2010-12

    Seed Yield (bu/ac)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W(rc)

    C-S-W

    C-S-W

    S-S

    S-S

    C-S

    C-S

    Conventional Till

    No-Till

    Note: Mean separation within tillage system (p=0.05)


    Wheat direct contribution to returns 5 double cropping opportunities

    Wheat: direct contribution to returns5. Double Cropping Opportunities


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    Double Crop Soybean Yield Survey 2012

    (bu/ac)

    FAIL

    FAIL

    FAIL

    23

    18

    FAIL

    23

    25

    32

    FAIL

    28

    36

    16

    32

    24

    42

    21

    22

    30

    45

    @cropdoc2


    Crop rotations is winter wheat the dark horse

    Phenology DC soybean trial

    Ridgetown, 2012

    Oct 3 R6

    Oct 3 R6

    Aug 14 R1

    July 20 V1

    Yield 20 bu @ $14/bu = $280/ac +/-

    Input costs = $175/ac +/-


    Cover crops

    Cover Crops?

    OMAFRA, 2012


    Is winter wheat the dark horse what is the real value of wheat

    Is Winter Wheat the "Dark Horse"?What is the REAL Value of Wheat?


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