Motivation
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Motivation. An inner state that (more or less) energizes an individual toward fulfillment of a goal, often until that goal is achieved. Motivation: Needs and drives. Needs A state of deficiency See Maslow’s need hierarchy on next slide Drives Psychological states activated to satisfy needs

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Motivation

Motivation

An inner state that (more or less) energizes an individual toward fulfillment of a goal, often until that goal is achieved.


Motivation needs and drives

Motivation: Needs and drives

  • Needs

    • A state of deficiency

    • See Maslow’s need hierarchy on next slide

  • Drives

    • Psychological states activated to satisfy needs

      • Often associated with some kind of arousal

        • Increased physiological and/or autonomic activity

      • For many biological needs, drive satisfaction is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms

      • See slides 4 & 5


Maslow s hierarchy of needs

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

  • Low-level needs must be meet before trying to satisfy higher-level needs

  • Safety: security, predictability, and stability at home and work

  • Esteem: Status, respect, power

  • Self-actualization: Fulfill one’s potential


Negative feedback model of homeostasis

Negative feedback model of homeostasis

  • A homeostatic mechanism maintains equilibrium (a steady state) by regulating its own behavior in response to change around a set point


Types of biological motivation

Types of biological motivation

  • Basic (Biological) Drives and Motives

    • Homeostatic drives

      • Hunger

      • Thirst

      • Sleep

      • Body temperature regulation

    • Nonhomeostatic motives

      • Sex

      • Threat


General theories of motivation

General Theories of Motivation

  • Drive Theory

    • Physiological needs arouse tension that motivates an action aimed at reducing the tension.

    • When a particular behavior consistently reduces a drive, that behavior becomes a habit.

  • Arousal Theory

    • But why do people often engage in activities that increase rather than decrease tension?

      • Skydiving, mountain biking, rock climbing, etc.

    • People need to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal.

  • Incentive Theory

    • Why do people engage in behavior that have no direct connection with satisfying some biological need?

      • Pulling an all-nighter for an exam.

    • The prospect of obtaining valued inducements (e.g., ice cream, grades, money, respect, etc.) pushes people to conceive goals, construct plans, and engage in behaviors in order to gain those incentives.


Yerkes dodson law

Yerkes-Dodson Law

  • Performance increases as arousal increases until some optimal level of arousal is reached, after which performance decreases

  • Yerkes-Dodson law

    • PerThere is an optimal level of arousal for peak performance


Drives motives and pleasure

Drives, motives, and pleasure

  • Pleasure is often associated with driven behaviors, especially adaptive behaviors, like sex.

    • Evolution’s way of “sweetening the pot”

      • Increases the frequency of adaptive behaviors

        • As a result, chance of survival is enhanced as is the chance that those genes responsible for the behavior-pleasure link are inherited


Extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation

Extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation

  • Extrinsic motivation

    • Behavior is engaged in order to attain an external reward.

  • Intrinsic motivation

    • Behavior is engaged for it’s own sake.

      • Curiosity, creativity, and play

  • Sometimes, offering an external reward for an intrinsically motivated behavior can actually decrease the frequency of the desired behavior.

    • Why?

      • Receiving an external reward undermines our feeling that we are doing something autonomously, for ourselves.


Motivating people at work

Motivating people at work

  • Vroom’s expectancy theory

    • People are motivated to work hard when

      • Expect efforts will improve performance

      • Expect good performance will be rewarded

      • Value the rewards they receive

  • Generally speaking, incentive programs based on Vroom’s theory improve work performance

  • However, extrinsic motivation can have a detrimental effect on performance when

    • The individual is intrinsically motivated

    • It is controlling, rather than informative


Equity theory

Equity theory

  • People want rewards to be equal

    • The ratio between inputs and outcomes should be the same for all workers

  • If people believe that there is inequity they will feel distressed and either

    • Restore equity

      • Work less

      • Seek a raise

    • Convince themselves that equity exists


Self regulation i

Self-regulation I

  • Self-regulation of behavior

    • The process whereby people initiate, adjust, or stop actions in order to attain personal goals.

  • Personal goals

    • Vary from simple to complex and can include either the accomplishment of something positive or the cessation of something negative

      • Buying my textbook

      • Stop partying

      • Start studying

      • Getting into medical school

      • Becoming a world-famous medical scientist

    • Challenging and specific goals that can be broken down into specific subgoals are the most productive

    • High self-efficacy tends to produce favorable outcomes

    • With the right approach, parents can instill high achievement motivation in their children


Self regulation ii

Self-regulation II

  • Basic self-regulation works like a homeostatic mechanism (see next slide)

    • Requires self-awareness

  • Delay of gratification

    • Foregoing immediate temptations in order to achieve long-term goals

    • An important component of self-regulation

    • An ability that varies across individuals

    • Strategies for implementation also vary across individuals

      • Turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions

      • Ignoring

      • Self-distraction

  • The ability to self-regulate depends on a limited pool of resources upon which many other mental and behavioral activities also depend

  • Frontal lobes of the brain (especially prefrontal cortex) are important for self-regulation


Motivation

TOTE

  • The TOTE Model

    • A TOTE unit is a homeostatic model of self-regulation.

    • Negative feedback from discrepancies between current state and ideal standing motivate efforts to reduce the discrepancies.


Social motives

Social motives

  • Need to belong theory

    • We engage behaviors that will gain us acceptance by others in our ingroup.

    • We avoid behaviors that will cause us to be rejected by others in our ingroup.

      • Incompetence

      • Unattractiveness

      • Immorality

        • Group members are vigilant to detect those who cheat.

    • Rejection by our ingroup causes anxiety.

  • People with social support networks tend to be happier and healthier.

  • From others we get energy, attention, stimulation, information, and emotional support.

    • Oftentimes, when miserable, we prefer others that are also miserable.

  • Stress often intensifies the need for affiliation, oftentimes because of informational needs.


Hunger and eating

Hunger and eating

  • Eating is affected by learning.

    • We eat not because we have deficient energy stores, but because it is time to eat.

  • Sights and smells of familiar, liked foods can induce hunger.

  • Food preferences are formed by personal and cultural experience


Hunger neural and physiological mechanisms

Hunger: Neural and physiological mechanisms

  • The hypothalamus is the most important brain structure related to hunger and eating.

    • Lesions to one specific region of the hypothalamus can cause extreme overeating, while lesions to another specific region can cause extreme undereating

  • Empty stomach induces eating

    • When balloon is inflated in stomach, hunger decreases.

  • Low levels of glucose detected in the bloodstream induces eating

    • Also true for low levels of body fat

      • This is probably communicated from fat cells to the hypothalamus by the recently discovered hormone leptin.


Obesity i from ch 10

Obesity I (from Ch. 10)

  • Defining overweight and obesity

    • Body mass index (BMI)

      • Ratio of weight to height [Kg/(M)2]

        • Used to measure obesity

      • A BMI of 20-25 (e.g., 6’ and 170 lbs. to 6’ and 210 lbs.) is considered average

        • A BMI between 25-30 is overweight

        • A BMI of 30 or over is obese

  • Body weight is 60-80% heritable

    • About the same as intelligence.


Body weights of twins

Body Weights of Twins


Obesity ii

Obesity II

  • Obesity is linked with a number of medical problems

  • Obesity is linked with a number of psychological problems

    • Anxiety is a cause of overeating

    • Being obese can cause low self-esteem

      • Prevalence of negative stereotypes of obese individuals (as “stupid” or “lazy”) is very high in some cultures

  • Obesity is culturally relative

    • Being obese means different things in different cultures

      • In developing countries, obesity is a symbol of affluence

      • African-Americans are heavier than white Americans, but are more satisfied with their weight

      • Contemporary culture is more pre-occupied with weight than in the past


Dieting

Dieting

  • Dieting is a notoriously ineffective means of losing weight.

    • The body has a natural defense mechanism against weight loss.

      • Body weight is regulated in a homeostatic manner around a set point that is genetically determined.

        • The lighter you get, the more your metabolic rate slows, making it yet harder to lose more weight.

    • Binge eating in restrained eaters

      • “I’ve blown my diet, so I might as well keep on eating.”


Eating disorders

Eating disorders

  • Most prevalent in white, North American women

  • Anorexia Nervosa: Starving oneself until weight is more than 15% below ideal body weight

    • The typical anorexic is a bright, talented, perfectionist who is preoccupied with feeling in control, especially of sexual feelings

    • Has a distorted body image

  • Bulimia nervosa: binge and purge


Motivation

Sex

Sexual behavior and motivation

Development of sexual identity

Influences on sexual motivation

Sexual orientation

Development of gender identity

Sex differences


Famous figures and facts in the psychology of sex

Famous figures and facts in the psychology of sex

  • Alfred Kinsey surveys (1948, 1953)

    • 90% of men and 50% of women had premarital sex

    • Virtually all men and women masturbated

    • 50% of men and 26% of women had extramarital affairs

    • 40% of college-aged couples engaged in oral sex

  • Laumann survey (1994)

    • Men are 2 – 3 times more likely to reach orgasm during sex

    • Women, but not men, are capable of multiple orgasms within a short period of time

  • Masters and Johnson’s (1966) four stages of the sexual response cycle (see next slide)


The sexual response cycle

The Sexual-Response Cycle

Masters and Johnson (1966)


Organizational effects of hormones

Organizational effects of hormones

  • All fetuses are genetically male (XY) or female (XX)

  • The external genitalia, reproductive systems (i.e., internal genitalia), and neural circuitry of all human fetuses begin as female

    • External genitalia:

      • Males: Urethra, penis, scrotum

      • Females: Urethra, clitoris, labia, vagina

    • Internal genitalia:

      • Males: Seminal vesicle, prostate, testes

      • Female: Ovary, fallopian tube, uterus

  • At 2-3 months, a gonad (primitive sex gland) develops into testes (male) or ovaries (female)

  • The release of androgens (e.g., testosterone) by testes causes the development of male external genitalia, male internal genitalia, and neural circuitry


Demonstrations of the organizational effects of hormones

Demonstrations of the organizational effects of hormones

  • Monkeys pregnant with genetically female offspring were injected with androgen

    • Offspring had penises and were more aggressive

  • Rats pregnant with genetically male offspring experienced high emotional stress during pregnancy

    • Offspring produced less androgen, showed unusual hypothalamic development, and showed less male-typical behavior

  • Hormones are a critical determinant of sexual identity


Activational effects of hormones

Activational effects of hormones

  • Beginning at puberty, hormones activate circuits laid down in utero and secondary sex characteristics emerge

    • Males: Testosterone causes facial, underarm, and pubic hair growth, lowers voice, stimulates muscular development, and causes genital growth

      • Males: first ejaculation; live sperm

    • Females: Estrogen causes breast development, changes in deposition of body fat, maturation of external genitalia; small amount of androgen causes pubic and underarm hair growth

      • Females: menarche (onset of menstruation); live eggs


Influences on sexual motivation hormones

Influences on sexual motivation: Hormones

  • Hormones may also have a temporary effect on adult sexual desire, arousal, and activity.

    • Testosterone is the primary hormone driving sexual behavior in men and women.

    • Less in primates than in other mammals.

    • More of an effect on males than females, but not as strong a relationship in males as once believed.

    • It appears that female sex drive varies across the menstrual cycle.

      • Sexual appetites (Carter, 1991)

      • Evaluation of men (see notes pages)

      • Manner of dress (Haselton et al., 2007)

    • However, female sexual desire does not decrease after menopause in humans (Atkinson & Hilgard, 2003).


Influences on sexual motivation cultural and emotional factors

Influences on sexual motivation: Cultural and emotional factors

  • Cultural influences

    • Sexual scripts vary across cultures

      • Beliefs about how a sexual episode should be enacted

        • Who makes the first move, whether one should resist, the sequence of sexual acts, and how should one act afterward.

    • In the USA, sexual behavior has changed as our culture has changed

      • The age at which both men and women lose their virginity has decreased

      • The percentage of both men and women losing their virginity at an earlier age has increased

  • Emotional factors

    • The most common cause of low desire in couples seeking sex therapy is marital conflict (Goleman, 1988).


Influences on sexual motivation sex differences

Influences on sexual motivation: Sex differences

  • Sexual attitudes and behaviors

    • Men > females in

      • Sexual promiscuity (frequency of sexual behavior and number of partners)

      • To have sex with anyone I choose

      • Sex w/o emotional commitment

      • Permissive attitudes toward casual sex

        • See next slide

      • Sexual interpretation of nonverbal cues

      • Fantasies about having sex with multiple partners simultaneously


Sex differences in attitudes toward casual sex

Sex differences in attitudes toward casual sex

  • When men and women were propositioned by an attractive stranger, men were much more willing than women to agree to have sex or to go home with the stranger.

    • Note that not a single woman agreed to have sex.

    • Also, note that men were more willing to have sex than to go on a date.


Influences on sexual motivation sex differences and evoluton

Influences on sexual motivation: Sex differences and evoluton

  • Sexual strategies theory (Buss, 1994)

    • Evolutionary perspective: Men and women differ on how they are best able to pass on their genes

      • Women seek older and more financially secure men (or men who have promise of future success) because women are biologically limited in the number of children they can bear.

      • Men seek fertile (young and healthy) women because they can father an unlimited number of children. Men also seek sexually faithful women because of paternity uncertainty.

    • Personal ads reveal that men tend to seek beauty and offer wealth, whereas women tend to offer beauty and seek wealth


Sex differences in marriage age

Sex Differences in Marriage Age

  • Men tend to marry younger women

    • This age difference increases with man’s age

  • Women tend to marry men who are slightly older

    • This changes little with age


Sex differences in jealousy

Sex differences in jealousy

  • Men are more concerned about sexual infidelity than women

  • Women are more concerned about emotional commitment


Sexual orientation

Sexual orientation

  • The degree to which an individual is attracted to persons of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality)

  • 2-4% of men and 1-2% of women consider themselves homosexual

  • The best predictor of homosexuality is a preference for opposite-sex activities – and a dislike for same-sex activities – as a child

    • “sissy” behavior in boys and tomboy behavior in girls


Not predictive of homosexual orientation

NOT predictive of homosexual orientation

  • Identification with an opposite sex parent.

  • Type of first sexual encounter.

  • “Seduction” by a person of the same sex or admiration of a gay person.

    • Feelings of attraction toward same sex typically occurs 3 years before homosexual activity


Sexual orientation genetics and environment

Sexual Orientation: Genetics and environment

  • Identical twins have the highest concordance rates

  • This suggests a genetic contribution to sexual orientation

  • Two findings suggest some environmental contribution

    • The rate for adoptive siblings is greater than zero

    • The rate for identical twins is less than 100%


Other findings and theories related to homosexuality

Other findings and theories related to homosexuality

  • Exposure to hormones, especially androgens, in the prenatal environment

    • Girls who were exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero are more likely to report being lesbian in adulthood.

  • LeVay (1991): larger hypothalamic nucleus in heterosexual men than in gay men

    • But no causal direction

      • Did a difference in experience cause the difference in hypothalamus size or did the difference in hypothalamus size cause the difference in experience?

    • Breedlove: rat study indicating spinal nucleus change after environmental change

  • Bem’s developmental theory of homosexuality

    • See next slide


Bem s exotic becomes erotic theory of homosexuality

Bem’s “exotic becomes erotic” theory of homosexuality

  • Genes produce differences in temperament

  • Differences in temperament means that males might be attracted to “female play”

  • Nonconforming males view conforming males as different, unfamiliar, arousing, and exotic

  • At puberty, any individual is more attracted to the more exotic of the two sexes

  • As a result, a nonconforming male will be attracted to males


Gender identity hormones and environment part one

Gender identity, hormones, and environment: Part One

  • Sex: A biological classification based on anatomy and genetics

  • Gender: The psychological meaning of being male or female

  • Women pregnant with genetically female offspring took an antimiscarriage drug that promoted a chemical environment in the brain that was similar to that for a male fetus

    • The offspring’s sexual identity and upbringing was that for a girl

    • Outcome: slightly higher frequency of homosexuality and slightly lower ratings of maternal interest

  • Environment seems more important for gender identity than hormones


Gender identity hormones and environment part two

Gender identity, hormones, and environment: Part Two

  • Androgen insensitivity

    • The body tissues of genetically male fetuses that would normally develop into the external male genitalia are insensitive to androgen and, as a result, develop into female genitalia

    • Anatomically, they are girls and they are raised as girls

    • Genetically and hormonally, they are boys

    • At puberty, the surge of testosterone turns the clitoris-like sex organ into a penis

    • Outcome: These individuals have little trouble adjusting to a male gender identity

  • Hormones are more important for gender identity than environment

  • Intersex


How are men and women psychologically different

How are men and women psychologically different?

  • Physical aggressiveness

    • Males > females

  • Verbal aggressiveness

    • Females > males

  • Cognitive abilities

    • Males > females at math and spatial tasks

      • From junior high on

    • Females > males at verbal tasks

      • At least through high school

  • Social sensitivity

    • Females > males at using nonverbal cues (e.g., facial expression and tone of voice) to determine how others are feeling


Why are men and women psychologically different nature

Why are men and women (psychologically) different? Nature!

  • The presence of testosterone in males

    • Linked to higher levels of physical aggressiveness in males

    • Slows development of left hemisphere and enhances development of right hemisphere, accounting for cognitive (verbal & spatial) differences (Benbow, 1988; Geschwind & Behan, 1982; Kimura, 1999)


Why are men and women psychologically different nurture

Why are men and women (psychologically) different? Nurture!

  • See pages 508-510 in your book.

  • Gender Roles

    • Sex-typed behaviors promoted by social learning (i.e., socialization).

      • For example, girls, but not boys, are encouraged to play with dolls in order to learn nurturing behavior.

  • Gender Schemas

    • Beliefs about men and women that influence the way we perceive ourselves and others.

  • Gender Stereotypes

    • Simplified and exaggerated gender schemas that have a kernel of truth.

  • Differences in gender identity could explain all the (psychological) differences between women and men.


A biosocial theory of sex differences

A Biosocial theory of sex differences

  • Perceived sex differences are magnified by unequal social roles occupied by men and women (Wood & Eagly, 2002)

Biological, social, economic, and political factors

Social roles (division of labor)

Role-consistent skills and behaviors

Gender-stereotyped social perceptions


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