Innovative commissioning for integrated out of hospital care emerging approaches
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Innovative commissioning for integrated out-of-hospital care: emerging approaches. Bob Ricketts Director of Commissioning Support Services Strategy Community Health Services Forum 20 February 2014. Innovative commissioning for integrated out-of-hospital care: emerging approaches. Topics:

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Innovative commissioning for integrated out of hospital care emerging approaches

Innovative commissioning for integrated out-of-hospital care: emerging approaches

Bob Ricketts

Director of Commissioning Support Services Strategy

Community Health Services Forum

20 February 2014


Innovative commissioning for integrated out of hospital care emerging approaches1

Innovative commissioning for integrated out-of-hospital care: emerging approaches

Topics:

  • Context

  • Commissioning for better outcomes & value:

    - capitation-based

    - ‘accountable lead provider’ v. ‘alliance’

    - value-based

  • Currencies & payment mechanisms

  • TCS contract expiry?


1 context

1. Context:

The NHS is facing unprecedented challenges to its sustainability – Call to Action:

  • Demographic pressures – an ageing population

  • Demand – incidence of LTCs (diabetes, dementia)

  • Rising expectations – patients, public, politicians

  • Quality – failures & gross variation

  • Outcomes – still often poor comparatively

  • Failure to deliver integrated care at-scale

  • Resource constraints - £30bn gap opening up

  • Outdated & over-stretched delivery systems – including primary care & ‘community services’

    = clear ‘burning platform’ for transformation


1 policy context

1. Policy context:

The new commissioning architecture provides unprecedented opportunities for innovative commissioning & provision:

  • Clinically-led commissioning

  • Strengthened partnerships with local government

  • Renewed focus on integration (Better Care Fund = 3% of total health & social care £ plus wider pooled funds )

  • Opportunity to re-design primary care

  • Growing support for ‘innovative commissioning & contracting’ – outcome-based contracts for populations, ‘lead provider’ models, risk-sharing, much longer contract durations to support investment & disinvestment to transform, review & alignment of incentives …


1 context1

1. Context:

Community services key to a sustainable NHS:

  • Scale: 100m contacts pa; £9.7bn, 10.6% of NHS expenditure

  • Vehicle for at-scale service transformation & major shifts in care settings (if alternative services are available)

  • Offer wide range of opportunities for prevention, early intervention & co-production

  • Ability to engage patients, carers, communities & other agencies

  • Unmet potential – Transforming Community Services


1 context2

1. Context:

Community Services: How they can transform care

Nigel Edwards, King’s Fund, Feb. 2014

  • Long-standing ambition to move care closer to home:

    - some reduction in hospital LoS, but much more to be done

    - patchy adoption of service models & limited progress to

    integration

  • Transforming Community Services (2008-), but “mostly concerned with structural change rather than how services could be changed. It is now time to correct this.”


1 context3

1. Context:

Community Services: How they can transform care:

  • Develop a simple pattern of services based around primary care & natural geographies, offering 24/7 services as standard. MDTs need to work differently with specialist services, offering patients a more complete & integrated service.

  • New models should include both health (and mental health) & social care, managing the health & social care budgets for their patients

  • Services must be capable of very rapid response , to sustain independence & speed up discharges from hospital


1 context4

1. Context:

Community Services: How they can transform care:

  • “New ways to contract & pay for these services are needed. This will also require changes in primary care & hospital contractual arrangements and in the infrastructure to support the model”:

  • “Eliminating obstacles in contractual and payment arrangements”:

    - block contracts

    - poor specifications

    - replicating historic commissioning patterns


2 commissioning for better outcomes value the case

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: the case

  • Our ambition is to deliver great outcomes, and reduce inequalities. But the current shape of the health and care delivery system is not sustainable in the medium-term given the challenges if faces.

  • Service transformation at scale and pace will be essential to secure a successful, sustainable NHS.

  • We still have a big gap in delivering the best outcomes – internationally & within England

  • We need to support & develop the NHS commissioning sector to lead the transformation of services:

  • Transformation is a key leadershiprole for CCGs & direct commissioners

  • Outcome-based population commissioning is a key vehicle to drive transformation & secure better outcomes and value


2 commissioning for better outcomes value obc vbc

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: OBC & VBC

  • Outcome-based population commissioning: a key vehicle to drive transformation & secure better outcomes and value for specific populations or groups (e.g. frail older people with multiple, complex problems; EoLC), or re-balance incentives by paying for outcomes

  • Value-based commissioning: emerging approach from U.S. Potentially useful for:

    - assessing priorities

    - comparing disparate service offers

    - re-directing/re-focusing incentives to driving-up value

    within services commissioned on Tariff


2 commissioning for better outcomes value obc

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: OBC

Key components of fully-developed OBC:

  • Population-based (frail older people, multiple complex problems; EoLC) or major pathway(s)(MSK)

  • Outcome-focused capitation payment

  • ‘Lead provider’

  • Provider co-ordinates care planning & delivery

  • Provider takes on much of the demand risk

    Still emerging, but examples: Bedfordshire (MSK), Cambridgeshire (older people services), Staffordshire (cancer & EoLCfor 1m+), Oxfordshire & Milton Keynes (sexual health; substance abuse), Oxfordshire (adult mental health, maternity & older people – on hold)


2 commissioning for better outcomes value obc1

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: OBC

To be transformational, OBC should …

  • be genuinely patient-centred & outcome-led ; aim high

  • focus on local priorities for improving outcomes & quality more widely AND reducing inequalities

  • build on sound analysis & prioritisation – RightCare & STAR

  • address prevention, not just treatment & care

  • span primary, community & secondary health care – see King’s Fund Top 10 Priorities for Commissioners

  • consider & involve other relevant services – social care but also other agencies influencing outcomes


2 commissioning for better outcomes value obc2

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: OBC

Staffordshire - at the leading-edge …

  • Collaborative: 5 CCGs + Macmillan Cancer Support (strategic partner) + NHS England + CSU

  • Outcome-focused & integrated services:

  • At scale: key services for 1m people across the footprints of people3 acute provider trusts. Will be the biggest contracts yet tendered for integrated NHS care

  • Transformational: patient-centred re-design; joined-up care

  • Innovative contracting: lead provider; 10 year duration


2 commissioning for better outcomes value obc3

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: OBC

Upside:

  • Potential to deliver sustainable whole-system service transformation

  • Better care co-ordination & planning> more ‘joined-up’ care, better outcomes & value

  • Strong synergy with integration

  • Can catalyse & incentivise providers to work differently

    ‘Urban myths’:

  • Doesn’t preclude personalisation or choice – embed in requirement for ‘lead provider’

  • Shouldn’t freeze-out SME & SE participation - enable through sub-contracting


2 commissioning for better outcomes value obc4

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: OBC

Downside:

  • Resource-intensive

  • Long lead times

  • Clarity re desired outcomes & behaviours crucial

  • Requires commissioner collaboration at-scale

  • Effective user engagement from the outset crucial

  • May require substantial (and challenging) market development – will be difficult if existing relationships are immature/tense

  • For most commissioners, probably one OBC project at a time

    Is it the right approach for the problem? Value-based?


2 commissioning for better outcomes value value based commissioning

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: Value Based Commissioning:


2 commissioning for better outcomes value value based commissioning1

2. Commissioning for better outcomes & value: Value Based Commissioning:

Assessing priorities:

1. Patient Value – value from the perspective of an individual patient

2. Public Value – value from the perspective

of the public considering health care as a whole

3. Allocation Value – economic benefits within a

fixed annual commissioning allocation

4. Economic Value – economic benefit across the

whole of the health and social care system

Select service proposals


3 currencies payment mechanisms

3. Currencies & payment mechanisms:

  • Still very difficult for commissioners to compare providers, performance & value

  • Information systems & measurement = key barriers

  • Limited progress from block contracts

  • Compounded by often unsophisticated approaches to commissioning & prioritisation

    But …

  • Increasing support commissioners to prioritise & assess value systematically – Right Care & STAR

  • CFTTN work on indicators

    Indicators > Currencies > Fairer Payment Systems

  • Wheelchair tariff?


3 currencies payment mechanisms1

3. Currencies & payment mechanisms:

Indicators:

  • Foundations laid in Initial work led by the CFTN to develop indicators of performance & value

  • Indicators based around 3 domains: performance; quality; social value, equity & inclusion

  • Signalled support from Monitor, NHS England, CQC, NHS TDA, HSCIC & Commissioning Assembly

  • Long lead time (2 years for indicators?), but great start

  • Should enable value-based commissioning for those services not included in capitation OBC


3 currencies payment mechanisms2

3. Currencies & payment mechanisms:

Deferred payment – Social Impact Bonds?

  • Need for upfront investment prior to social impact & financial return

  • Applications? Frail older people – admission avoidance & promoting independence; reducing use of anti-psychotic drugs in residential care; challenged families

  • Examples? GLA & St. Mungo’s – homelessness; Essex County Council & Action for Children – children at the edge of care; Sandwell & West Midlands CCG with Marie Curie – EoLC; Age UK in Cornwall – admission avoidance (under development)


3 currencies payment mechanisms sibs

3. Currencies & payment mechanisms: SIBs

SOCIAL INVESTOR

(Investment contract

for financial return)

COMMISSIONER ↔ SPECIAL PURPOSE

(OBC contract for VEHICLE

cashable savings & (Sub-contract for activity)

better outcomes) ↕

SERVICE PROVIDERS

(Acknowledgement to Bevan Brittan)


4 tcs contract expiry

4. TCS contract expiry?

Poses real dilemmas for commissioners & regulators …

  • PCT divestment of community services under ‘TCS’ 2011

  • Contracts 2-3-5 years

  • Uncontested contracts to social enterprise spin-outs, on condition open competition on expiry

  • Decisions subject to procurement law, public law (Gloucs. TCS judicial review) & s.75 regulations – caveat emptor!

  • We now have a diverse non-NHS market (SEs & corporates


4 tcs contract expiry1

4. TCS contract expiry?

What to do?

  • Roll-over for another full term (but not for TCS Social Enterprises)

  • Extend pending disaggregation and/or OBC

  • Re-procure for service transformation and/or better value(Bath & NE Somerset CCG; Hambleton, Richmondshire & Whitby – terminating contract with York Teaching FT & re-procuring)


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