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Social Change. Social Change. “The transformation of culture and social institutions over time”. Social change happen all the time. Social change is often intentional but often unplanned. Social change is controversial. Social changes matter more than other. Causes of Social Change.

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social change1
Social Change
  • “The transformation of culture and social institutions over time”.
  • Social change happen all the time.
  • Social change is often intentional but often unplanned.
  • Social change is controversial.
  • Social changes matter more than other.

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

causes of social change
Causes of Social Change
  • Culture & Change
    • Invention, discovery, diffusion.
  • Conflict & Change
  • Ideas & Change
  • Demographic Change

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

modernity
Modernity
  • “Social Pattern resulting from industrialization”
  • Modernization : “Process of social change begun by industrialization”.
  • Peter Berger (1977) gives Four Dimensions of Modernization:
    • The decline of small traditional communities.
    • The expansion of personal choice.
    • Increasing social diversity.
    • Future orientation & growing awareness of time.

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

ferdinand tonnies the loss of communities
Ferdinand Tonnies:The Loss Of Communities
  • Theory of Gemeinschaft & Gesellschaft.
  • Gemeinschaft: human community.
  • Gesellschaft: self interest
  • Industrial revolution weakened the social fabric of family & tradition by introducing business like emphasis on fact efficiency & money.
  • But Tonnies overlooked bonds of family, neighborhood & friendship in modern society, even in the world of strangers modern friendship can be strong & lasting.

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

emile durkheim the division of labor
Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor
  • Modernization is defined as “increasing division of labor, or specialized economic activity”
  • Pre industrial societies are held together by mechanical solidarity, or shared moral sentiments.
  • Mechanical solidarity virtually the same as Tonnies Gemeinschaft.
  • Modernization introduce division of labor & organic solidarity, mutual dependency of people engaged in specialized work.
  • Organic solidarity virtually the same as Tonnies Gesellschaft.

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

emile durkheim the division of labor continue
Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor continue…..
  • Modern societies are held together not by likeness but by difference.
  • Modernization is not the loss of community but as the change from community based likeness to community based economic interdependence.
  • Durkheim had optimistic approach but he feared that modern societies become so diverse that they would collapse into state of anomie, a condition in which norms & values become weak & inconsistent with little moral guidance.
    • Anomie: a condition in which norms & values become weak & inconsistent with little moral guidance.

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

max weber rationalization
Max Weber: Rationalization
  • Modernity means replacing traditional world view with a rational way of thinking.
  • Modern people adopt whatever social pattern allow them to achieve their goals.
  • He favors technological & organizational advancement but worried that science turn us away from more basic question about human existence.

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

karl marx capitalism
Karl Marx: Capitalism
  • Modern societies are same as capitalism.
  • Modernity weakened small communities, sharpened the division of labor & foster a rational world view.
  • He saw all these as conditions of capitalism.
  • Social conflict in capitalist societies results revolutionary change
  • Underestimating the dominance of bureaucracy.

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

postmodernity
Postmodernity
  • Social pattern characteristic of post industrial societies.
  • In important respects, modernity has falled.
  • The bright light of progress is fading.
  • Science no longer holds the answer.
  • Cultural debates are intensifying.
  • Social institutions are changing.

“ social change”

Instructor: Saba Nasir

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