Rural Transport in a wider context

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Content of talk. What do we mean by Rural?Travel behaviour in rural areasWhat's distinctive about rural transport?The wider rural social contextWhat does this mean for transport policy?. The Commission for Rural Communities. Formed out of Countryside Agency in 2006 funded by DefraProvide ind

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Rural Transport in a wider context

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1. Rural Transport in a wider context Gordon Stokes 28th February 2008 Transport Studies Unit

2. Content of talk What do we mean by Rural? Travel behaviour in rural areas What’s distinctive about rural transport? The wider rural social context What does this mean for transport policy?

3. The Commission for Rural Communities Formed out of Countryside Agency in 2006 – funded by Defra Provide “independent advice” to Government on rural issues relating to social and economic Rural expert Rural watchdog Rural advocate

4. What do we mean by rural? Way of defining rural areas Countryside/ built-up (localities) Rural economy (regions) Typologies of rural inhabitants Income Wealth Type of employment Location of employment + age, gender etc (People live side by side to a much greater extent than in urban areas) Understanding rural areasUnderstanding rural areas

5. Rural Urban Definitions (Office of National Statistics)

6. ONS Urban Rural Definitions Settlement types

7. Census output areas defined

8. What’s rural? Didcot Power Station?, Harwell Labs?

9. Population by settlement size

10. Defra Classification of Local Authority Districts

11. Defra Lagging rural areas

12. Where does that leave ‘rural’? If rurality is defined by population density … … and performance is defined by average earnings … … then what is different about rural areas other than population density?

13. Different view of rurality Preserved countryside – more accessible counter-urbanised countryside (eg SE England) Contested countryside – traditional and new rural communities exist with scope for conflict (eg SW England) Paternalistic countryside – dominated by estates and tradition (eg Northumberland) Clientalistic countryside – peripheral dependent on state support (eg Mid Wales) Murdoch et al, 2003 Murdoch J, P Lowe, N Ward and T Marsden (2003) The differentiated countryside, Routledge, LondonMurdoch J, P Lowe, N Ward and T Marsden (2003) The differentiated countryside, Routledge, London

14. Typologies of rural areas for transport A Peri-urban areas A1 – Rural peri-conurbation (Inner Surrey, Cheshire) A2 – Rural peri-urban (Around Oxford) B Market town hinterland B1 – with nearby urban area (Witney dominated by Oxford) B2 – with dispersed hinterland (Mid Suffolk) B3 – with valley hinterland (Yorkshire Dales) C Remote areas C1 – Tourist area (Lake District) C2 – Remote rural village (North Norfolk) C3 – Isolated periphery (NW Highlands)

15. Travel behaviour in rural areas

16. Rural people make same number of trip, spend slightly more time travelling … But travel much further

17. T Virtually all this distance difference is due to more use of cars

18. T And more trips are by car … Though walk still accounts for many trips

19. Modes used – urban and rural

20. Car ownership by income Those with the lowest incomes in hamlets have very much higher car ownership rates

21. Miles per car, by rurality and income The high mileage of those with high incomes in rural areas is not mirrored by those on low incomes

22. T T

23. Accessibility indicator for ‘all’ services Composite indicators of access to various service types, weighted by the modes that people use The smaller the number the better the accessibility

24. Method of travel to school Rural children do use cars more They use buses more They walk less

25. Car ownership relative to bus service “Good bus service” = within 13 minutes of an hourly or better bus service For those “with” good bus service 89% have a household car, 94% for those “without” For those in lowest income quintile “with”, 54% have car, compared with 70% “without”, & … … 6% “with” have 2 cars, compared with 25% “without”

26. What’s distinctive about rural transport?

27. Summary of rural travel behaviour Greater access to cars, but for people on low incomes, ownership is often a necessity 40% on lowest incomes did not have car in 1990 – now 15% Car running costs somewhat higher distances people have to travel to access services higher cost of many non-urban petrol stations but petrol spending only 10% higher Fewer services outlets 78% parishes had no general food store in 2000 72% had no small village shop BUT Highly polarised HIGH Mobility accompanied by LOW Accessibility

28. From “Top Ten community concerns” Difficult for old and disabled to access healthcare Link transport systems in a sensible way Improve sports facilities Set up taxi voucher/ car sharing scheme Traffic calming measures on main roads into villages

29. The “big issues” in transport (national) Congestion Pollution Safety Accessibility Accessibility is the only one where rural areas ‘figure’

30. Traffic growth T Little direct congestion on most “rural roads” (rush hour traffic in towns extends outwards) High levels on motorways (Incident and capacity related) Contribution of rural people to traffic levels Little direct congestion on most “rural roads” (rush hour traffic in towns extends outwards) High levels on motorways (Incident and capacity related) Contribution of rural people to traffic levels

31. Factors behind traffic growth Increases in car ownership and use Counter urbanisation Location of job and facilities Increases in long distance travel Globalisation of markets Consequences of unchecked trends Faster traffic growth in rural areas Greater land take (transport and other and uses) Fewer local service outlets Worsening isolation (for those isolated)

32. The wider social rural context

33. Age profile 1985-2005 1985 – slightly fewer younger people in rural areas, and slightly more older 2005 – same pattern but much more exaggerated Very obvious dip in 15 to 29 year olds

34. Median age Median age is higher in most rural areas Especially high in ‘coastal retirement areas’ One area of East Devon has median age of 62.9 Rural areas with young median age are generally military areas

35. % change in number of service outlets Most service types are declining in numbers Not much rural urban difference (for most) but impacts can be greater Free cashpoints ++ dentists -

36. Service deserts Areas with no post office within 2kms, or free cashpoint, bank or building society within 4kms More in remote areas, but can be found in all but areas close to cities

37. Annual household income 2007 Hamlets highest with villages higher than urban areas and towns Sparse areas lag behind

38. High and low income areas As might be expected, but there are surprises EG West Cumbria

39. Areas where over 25% residents with no car 2001 Census using Census Output Areas as units (about 120 households)

40. House prices House prices 22% higher in rural than urban Hamlets about 60% higher than urban Price rising faster in sparse areas

41. Lowest quarter of incomes buying lowest quarter priced house – ratio Very bad in South West, but also many other areas Lower quartile is worse than for average Lower quartile Housing affordability

42. “Hard to heat” homes – Off main gas and With solid walls Sparse rural areas are much more likely to be ‘hard to heat’ Less sparse villages and hamlets also likely to not have mains gas, and more have solid walls (Older houses have solid walls)

43. Summary financial statement Rural people spend £60 more than urban (on average) “Extra” is on transport, consumables, household goods, recreation Housing lower, mainly due to number who own houses outright

44. Taking exercise People exercising more than 30 mins 3+ times per week High in central south, and bits of Yorks Low around the Fens and other ‘poorer’ areas

45. Trips to Countryside by Car Access Have car – will travel

46. Combined air quality Rural air quality better than average But higher along transport corridors Ozone worse in rural areas (only pollutant this is the case)

47. Tranquility CPRE analysis

48. Carbon footprint (1)

49. Carbon footprint (2)

50. Social Exclusion Urban areas - lack of transport an effect of social exclusion Rural areas - lack of transport a cause of social exclusion Urban exclusion tends to be concentrated in “deprived wards” Rural exclusion can be found anywhere

51. What does this mean for transport policy?

52. Perspectives on Rural transport issues Mobility of residents as paramount Protection of countryside as paramount Protection of rural lifestyles as paramount Accessibility as paramount Bringing rural areas into the 21st century Limit other people’s car use - (not mine) (The above are ‘extremes’)

53. Contentious issues in policy? Accessibility rather than mobility Extent of “anti car” direction Focus on demand management rather than catering for demand Safety rather than speed Balance for rural economy vs environment

54. Transport policy and rural areas Transport policy aimed at ‘major problems’ (congestion and environment) so mainly urban and interurban in nature Whatever decided in “rural transport policy” will have less effect than urban and interurban policy Discussion of rural transport policy must therefore:- assess impacts of urban and interurban policies on rural areas (rural proofing) not treat rural transport policy initiatives as though they are in a vacuum Small measures will make the difference to the socially excluded need to think BIG and SMALL need to link ‘Top Down – and – Bottom Up”

55. Transport for those without cars

56. The BIG trends affecting public transport in rural areas Increasing car ownership Sparse populations Low priority for policy makers and operators Problem of accountability – cross sector benefits of transport provision

57. Is it Public Transport? Commercial buses Tendered buses Group bus services (S19) Community bus services(S22) Taxi buses (S12) Shared taxis Rail Light rail Schools transport Hospitals transport Social services transport Supermarket buses Post buses Community car schemes Works buses College buses Dial – a – rides Demand responsive transport Wheels to work Liftshare schemes Car clubs

58. Is it Community Transport? Group bus services (S19) Community bus services(S22) Taxi buses (S12) Taxi/ PHV share on demand (S10) Taxi/ PHV share book ahead (S11) Supermarket buses Post buses Community car schemes Dial – a – rides Works buses College buses Demand responsive transport Wheels to work Liftshare schemes Car clubs core Schools/ Health/ Social Services transport

59. Expected costs of service provision

60. Likely impacts of current spend on rural public transport Difficulty maintaining bus service levels in some areas Continued support in others Question mark over Rural Transport Partnerships and Community Transport funding Very variable picture ‘Necessity’ may spark new initiatives

61. The role of public transport in rural areas? A safety net for those without cars? A safety net for those without cars where “we can afford it”? A public service that should provide a reasonable level of service to all? A service that should enable people to freely choose between car and public transport? Providing Choice or Meeting Need?

63. Vision for rural integrated transport?

64. And what to do about those with cars? Disproportionate mileage by high income drivers

65. Forthcoming CRC work on rural transport What long term trends in technology and responses to climate change will mean for rural areas? What should we do about rural public transport? Work on a system that provides for a small proportion who do not have cars? Create a system that many more will use?

66. Thank You Gordon Stokes [email protected]

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