REVISION
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REVISION. The Living Environment. Conditions for Life on Earth. Availability of water Appropriate temperature range Suitable ambient gases Light Atmospheric oxygen Atmospheric carbon dioxide. Physiological solvent, transport, coolant.

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Revision

REVISION

The Living Environment


Conditions for life on earth

Conditions for Life on Earth

Availability of water

Appropriate temperature range

Suitable ambient gases

Light

Atmospheric oxygen

Atmospheric carbon dioxide

Physiological solvent, transport, coolant.

The anomalous expansion on freezing (ice floats) prevents many water bodies from freezing solid.

The high specific heat capacity of water moderates temperature change.

Water provides aquatic habitats.

For liquid water, enzyme function.

Carbon dioxide, nitrogen in the pre-life atmosphere

photosynthesis, source of energy for the water cycle.

The production of oxygen and its interaction with UV to form the ozone layer.

Reduction of CO2 levels and the importance of this in maintaining global temperatures as the sun has become brighter.


Rationale for wildlife conservation

Rationale for Wildlife Conservation

  • Educational reasons

  • Aesthetic/recreational

  • Moral reasons

  • Ethical reasons

  • Economic benefits

  • Medical

  • Food resources

  • Materials

How many can you name?

Hint: there are 8


How humans threaten wildlife

How humans threaten wildlife

Deliberate exploitation

Food

Fashion

Pets and entertainment

Furniture and ornaments

Traditional medicines

Accidental harm from other activities

Unintentional deaths caused by human activities

Introduced species

Predators

Competitors

Disease

Habitat change / destruction

Give an example of each


Conservation methods

Conservation methods

  • CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species).

  • Wildlife & Countryside Act (1981 & 1984)

  • Legal establishment of protected areas

  • IWC (International Whaling Commission)

  • Captive breeding and release

How do each of these help in conservation?


Revision

Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs)

National Nature Reserves

Local Nature Reserves

Marine Nature Reserve

Ramsar sites

Special Protection Areas (SPAs)

Special Areas of Conservation (SACs)

Plants, animals, geographical or geological features.

Rare or migratory birds

Usually SSSIs which are good examples of important habitats.

Very strict legal controls

benefit of wildlife and the public

Wetlands of international importance.

E.G. Lundy Island, Skomer

Conservation in the UK


Uk habitats

UK Habitats

Broadleaf woodland

Wetlands

Heathland

Hedgerows

Chalk grassland

Hay meadows

Coastal habitats

How many threatened habitats do you know? Hint: 7!


Conservation abroad

Conservation Abroad

Tropical Rainforest

Coral Reef

Antarctica

For each you must be able to give ecological features, importance to humans and threats.


Life processes in the biosphere

Life processes in the Biosphere

A

  • Temperature

  • Symbiotic nutrition

  • Acquiring food /avoidance of predation

  • light

  • pH

  • Disease

  • water

  • mineral nutrients

  • turbulence and physical damage.

  • Pollination

  • Seed dispersal

B

B

A

A

B

A

A

A

B

B

Which are biotic and which are abiotic?


Grouping organisms

Grouping organisms

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Habitat

Niche

Biome

Biosphere

Can you define each one?


Changes in ecosystems

Changes in ecosystems

What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?

What is a plagioclimax?

What is the climax community in Britain?

What are pioneer species?


Populations

Populations

What is carrying capacity?

Give 2 density dependent factors

Give 2 density independent factors

The maximum population size that can be supported indefinitely without damaging or over-exploiting

the environment.

food supply, disease

drought, flood, volcanic eruption


Land use conflicts

Land Use Conflicts

  • Urban expansion

  • New/enlarged roads

  • Proposed/enlarged airports

  • Port developments

  • Mining /quarrying

  • Harnessing energy

  • Windfarms

  • Power stations

  • Recreation and tourism

There are 9 major causes of land use conflicts, can you name them?


Practical skills

Practical Skills

  • Random sampling using quadrats

  • Belt transects to record changes in species distribution

  • Mark - release - recapture (Lincoln Index) method of estimating population size

  • Kick sampling and nets for aquatic organisms

  • Pitfall traps,

  • Light traps for night-flying

    moths


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