Similes, Metaphors, Personification, Alliteration, imagery, tone/mood, direct characterization, Rhyme, Symbolism, and Repetition. Figurative Language. Figurative Language. A writers tool It helps the reader to visualize (see) what the writer is thinking It puts a picture in the readers mind
Similes, Metaphors, Personification, Alliteration, imagery, tone/mood, direct characterization, Rhyme, Symbolism, and Repetition
SimilesTwilight: After Haying-Jane Kenyon Yes, long shadows go outfrom the bales; and yes, the soulmust part from the body:what else could it do?The men sprawl near the baler, too tired to leave the field.They talk and smoke,and the tips of their cigarettesblaze like small roses in the night air. (It arrivedand settled among thembefore they were aware.)The moon comes to count the bales,and the dispossessed--Whip-poor-will, Whip-poor-will--sings from the dusty stubble.These things happen. . .the soul's blissand suffering are bound togetherlike the grasses. . .The last, sweet exhalationsof timothy and vetchgo out with the song of the bird; the ravaged fieldgrows wet with dew.
Mother To Son-By Langston Hughes
Well, son, I’ll tell you:Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair.It’s had tacks in it,And splinters,And boards torn up,And places with no carpet on the floor –Bare.But all the timeI’se been a-climbin’ on,And reachin’ landin’s,And turnin’ corners,And sometimes goin’ in the darkWhere there ain’t been no light.So boy, don’t you turn back.Don’t you set down on the steps‘Cause you finds it’s kinder hard.Don’t you fall now –For I’se still goin’, honey,I’se still climbin’,And life for me ain’t been no crystal stair.
MetaphorDemocracy-by Langston HughesDemocracy will not comeToday, this yearNor everThrough compromise and fear.I have as much right As the other fellow hasTo standOn my two feet And own the land.I tire so of hearing people say, Let things take their course.Tomorrow is another day.I do not need my freedom when I'm dead.I cannot live on tomorrow's bread.FreedomIs a strong seedPlantedIn a great need.I live here, too.I want freedomJust as you.
Giving non human objects human like characteristics.
Giving animals human like characteristics.
The repetition of consonant sounds to enhance the rhythm or to create a beat in poetry.
We, unaccustomed to courageexiles from delightlive coiled in shells of lonelinessuntil love leaves its high holy templeand comes into our sightto liberate us into life.Love arrivesand in its train come ecstasiesold memories of pleasureancient histories of pain.Yet if we are bold,love strikes away the chains of fearfrom our souls.We are weaned from our timidityIn the flush of love's lightwe dare be braveAnd suddenly we seethat love costs all we areand will ever be.Yet it is only lovewhich sets us free.
MoodThe mood is the feeling or atmosphere of a piece. The mood can be many different things. Some examples included:
A feeling of love.
A feeling of doom.
A feeling of fear.
A feeling of pride.
An atmosphere of chaos.
An atomsphere of peace.
MeaningWhat is the author trying to communicate.
How to Achieve Mood and MeaningYou should be able to establish mood or purpose in poetry by:
choice of words,
structure of the sentences,
the length of each poetic line,
and the punctuation marks chosen.
Stark naked flower stalksStand shivering in the wind.The cheerless sun hides its black lightBehind bleak, angry clouds,While trees vainly tryTo catch their escaping leaves.Carpets of grass turn brown,Blending morosely with the dreary day.Winter seems the death of life forever.(poetry devices used: alliteration, personificationoxymoron, metaphor, hyperbole)
Stunningly dressed flower stalksStand shimmering in the breeze.The cheerful sun hides playfullyBehind white, fluffy, cotton-ball clouds,While trees whisper secretsTo their rustling leaves.Carpets of grass greenly glowBlending joyfully with the day.Spring brings life to death.(Poetry devices used: alliteration, personification,metaphor, simile)
DEFINITION OF IRONY As a figure of speech, irony refers to a difference between the way something appears and what is actually true. Part of what makes poetry interesting is its indirectness, its refusal to state something simply as "the way it is." Irony allows us to say something but to mean something else, whether we are being sarcastic, exaggerating, or understating.
The whiskey on your breathCould make a small boy dizzy;But I hung on like death:Such waltzing was not easy.We romped until the pansSlid from the kitchen shelf;My mother's countenanceCould not unfrown itself.
The hand that held my wristWas battered on one knuckle;At every step you missedMy right ear scraped a buckle.
You beat time on my headWith a palm caked hard by dirt,Then waltzed me off to bedStill clinging to your shirt.
The first stanza introduces what is a heavily ironic tone that persists throughout the poem. A waltz sounds like a pleasant enough diversion, but the whiskey, the dizziness, and especially the word death collectively undercut this assumption and make us understand that the situation is not entirely lighthearted. - lines
1-2 - "The whiskey on your breath / Could make a small boy dizzy"These lines are ironic because, while it is possible that the smell of “the whiskey” alone would make the child dizzy, being swung roughly (and even drunkenly) about is probably to blame too.
- line 3 - "I hung on like death"This line emphasizes the irony of line 4. Because the speaker’s father presents a certain danger, he “hangs on” to him here not necessarily “like death” but rather for dear life. The word death is thus ironic, but it makes the danger of the situation clear and offsets the notion that this is just a lighthearted waltz.
- line 4 - "Such waltzing was not easy"The waltz should be easy, on a literal level, because the speaker is just being swung around by his father. It isn’t easy because, apparently, their lives together aren’t easy.
- lines 5-6 - "We romped until the pans / Slid from the kitchen shelf"Continuing the tone of the first stanza, the word romped here is ironic because it makes the waltz sound carefree, yet the effect of this romping is to cause a violent, crashing disruption in their domestic world.
Rhythm is a musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables. Rhythm occurs in all forms of language, both written and spoken, but is particularly important in poetry
The most obvious kind of rhythm is the regular repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables found in some poetry.
Writers also create rhythm by repeating words and phrases or even by repeating whole lines and sentences