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Solubility of Salts & Complex Ions. Solubility of Salts. Precipitation reactions occur when one of the products in a double replacement is a water-_________ compound. Predicting Solubility. The good guys are ALWAYS soluble. #1 NO CHO CLO N. ClO 3 - ClO 4 -. Alkali metals. NO 3 -.

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Solubility of salts
Solubility of Salts

  • Precipitation reactions occur when one of the products in a double replacement is a water-_________ compound

Predicting solubility
Predicting Solubility

  • The good guys are ALWAYS soluble









Other ions
Other Ions

  • Halogens are mostly ______; except with Ag, Pb

  • OH- are mostly ______; except with CaBaSr

  • CO32-, PO42-, S2-, and SO32- are mostly ________.

Solubility of insoluble salts
Solubility of Insoluble Salts

  • “Insoluble” means that less than 0.01 mole dissolves per liter

  • SOME still dissolves according to an equilbrium expression.

Solubility product constant k sp
Solubility Product ConstantKsp

  • The equilibrium constant that reflects the solubility of a compound

    • “sp”: solubility product

  • AgBr(s) <--->

    Ksp = 5.4 x10-13

  • Appendix J lists Ksp values

Practice problems
Practice Problems

  • Write the equililibrium expressions for the solid in water.

    1) BaF2 (s)

    2) Ag2CO3 (s)

Calculating k sp from solubility
Calculating Ksp from Solubility

  • In a saturated solution of BaF2, 0.063 grams of the compound is dissolved in 100 mL. Use this information calculate the Ksp for BaF2.

    BaF2 (s) <--> Ba2+(aq) + 2F-(aq)

Estimating the salt solubility from k sp
Estimating the Salt Solubility from Ksp

  • The Ksp of Ag2CO3 is 8.5 x 10-12. What is the concentration of Ag2CO3, Ag+, and CO32- dissolved? Convert Ag2CO3 concentration to g/L.

Solubility the common ion effect
Solubility & the Common Ion Effect

  • The solubility of a salt is lowered by the presence of a common ion in the solution. (LeChatlier's)

  • Write the reaction and expression for the solubility of Zn(OH)2.

Practice problem
Practice Problem

  • Calculate the solubility in mol/L of Zn(OH)2 in the presence of 0.010M Zn(NO3)2,

    • Ksp of Zinc Hydroxide = 3.0 E-17

K sp and q reaction quotient
Ksp and Q (reaction quotient)

  • Q reflects concentration of ions ___________________ .

  • K reflects the concentration of ions __________________ .

    Q = Ksp: __________________

    Q < Ksp: __________________

    Q > Ksp: __________________

Precipitation reaction
Precipitation Reaction

  • If the concentration of Mg2+ is 1.5x10-6 M and the concentration of OH- is 1.0x10-4 M, will precipitation of Mg(OH)2 occur? Ksp = 5.6x10-12.

Precipitation reaction cont
Precipitation Reactioncont

  • If the concentration of magnesium remains 1.5x10-6 M, what concentration of the hydroxide ion is needed to precipitate magnesium hydroxide?

Precipitation reactions
Precipitation Reactions

  • The value for the Ksp of of AgBr is 5.0E-13. Write the Ksp expression.

  • A student mixes 10 mL of 1.5 x 10-4 M AgNO3 with 2.0 mL of 5.0x10-4 M NaBr and stirs. What will the student observe? Justify with a calculation.