Infection of the genital tract. Done by: Tasneem abue tailakh Safaa alijla. Infection of the genital tract. - Bacterial - Viruses - Fungi - parasite. Bacterial. Syphilis.
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Infection of the genital tract
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacteria treponemapallidum subspecies pallidum.
The primary route of transmission of syphilis is through sexual contact however it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth resulting in conginetal syphilis.
The signs and symptomes of syphilis vary depending on which of the four stages it presents in (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary).
- The primary stage typically presents with a single 0chancre
- secondary syphilis with a diffuse rash
0- latent with little to no symptoms
- tertiary with gumms, neurological, or cardiac symptoms.
Treponemapallidum is a species of spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases such as syphylis.
It is not seen on a gram stain smear because the organism has a waxy coat around it that does not accept the Gram stain.
Chancroid, or soft chancre, is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Haemophilusducreyi, a gram-negative bacillus.
It is relatively uncommon in the United States, but is the most common cause of genital ulcers in Africa.
The incubation period is 3 to 7 days. The lesion begins as a soft, red papule. Within 1 to 2 days, it becomes pustular, eroded, and ulcerated.
The ulcer is usually 1 to 2 cm in diameter, painful, and covered by a yellowish or gray exudates; it bleeds easily when scraped. The edges of the ulcer are ragged and undermined.
Chancroid does not have a vesicular stage. In males the ulcer is typically located on the distal penis, but may occasionally occur in the urethra and anal orifice.
In females, the lesions tend to be localized to the vulva but can also occur in the vaginal, perianal area, and cervix.
Painful inguinal lymphadenopathy and over-riding erythema is associated with chancroid in nearly half of all cases in males, less often in female cases.
The lymph nodes become fluctuant, can spontaneously rupture, and drain pus. Systemic symptoms can occur but are rare.
Lesion is located in the anogenital area
Lesion is a painful ulcer without eschar
Lesion lacks vesicular stage
Lymphogranulomavenereum (LV) is a sexually transmitted disease caused by chlamydia organisms.
LV is found most frequently in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world.
The incubation period ranges from 3 to 12 days.
The primary lesion is a 5- to 8-mm, soft, red, painless erosion or ulcer.
The ulcer heals spontaneously in a few days. The secondary stage begins 2 to 6 weeks later and is characterized by the appearance of tender, inguinal adenopathy, which develops with over-
riding erythema and edema.
The lymph nodes coalesce, may fluctuate, and drain spontaneously. Associated fever, chills, and malaise can be severe.
The late stage of LV is characterized by anogenital strictures in untreated or under-treated cases.
Granulomainguinale is a chronic bacterial infection of the genital region, generally regarded to be sexually
Granulomainguinale is a relatively rare disease occurring in people living in tropical and subtropical areas.
It occurs more frequently in males.
In the United States, while homosexuals are at greater risk, it is relatively rare in heterosexual partners of those infected.
Discharge from the male urethra has many causes, but when an adult seeks medical assistance , the cause is often urethritis caused by a sexually transmitted infection .
Purulent discharge from the urethra may be caused by either C.tracomatis (serotypes A-K) or N.gonorrhoeae .
Although N.gonorrhoeae typically causes a more obviously purulent discharge ,there is overlap in the clinical presentation and a high proportion of dual infection .
The patient may have dysuria but some patients have urethritis without a clinically evident discharge .
In bacteria , there is a thin discharge with a distinctive odour , which the patient may well notice .
The condition is caused by a distutbance in vaginal flora that results in in an over growth of commensal anaerobic , the metabolic products the metabolic products of these include volatile amines , hence the smell.
Species including Gardnerellavaginitis and Mobiluncus sp.
have been implicated as possible causes of condition ,but isolation of the organisms does not help in the clinical management of individual patient.
Inflammation of the uterine cervix is usually caused by sexually transmitted infection with either N.gonorroeae or C.tracomatis .
Cervicitis is the female counterpart of urethritis in adult males .
Unfortunately , it is not so easily noticed and a large proportion of cases go undiagnosed .
The consequence of undiagnosed cervicitis is ascending infection of female genital tract , endometritis , salpingitistubo-ovarian abscess or disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) .
The most important non-infective sequelae include infertility or , if the fallopian tubes remain patent, an increased risk of tubal pregnancy .
PID is a term used to refer to infection of the female pelvic organs ,it is usually sexually transmitted .
Infection of the fallopian tubes , the adjasent structures and abscesses in the pouch of Douglas usually occur as a result of assending sexually transmitted infection from the lower genetal tract .
N.gonorreae and C.tracomatisare prominent causes of PID .
However, many cases are polymicrobial and feature other species such as anaerobic bacteria ,Sreptococci ,Mycoplasma and Ureplasma spp.
Infections of the uterus are uncommon and arise in several specific setting .
Endometritis may occure as a consequence of ascending infection with N.gonorreae or C. tracomatisbut is rarly diagnosed as adistinct
Infection may arise postpartum or postabortion , when bacteria from the vaginal flora gain access and establish an acute endometritis .
This process is assisted by the presence of retained products of conception .
Postpartum ,the patient will have offensive lochia and fever .
This was often caused by Streptococcus pyogen , but anaerobic and other bacteria may also be implicated .
Extension of infection into the myometrium and spread via the bloodsream may develop rapidly.
Amore insidious intrauterin infection is pelvic actinomycosis , caused by the bacterium Actinomycesisra .
Infection occurs more commonly in women with IUDs .
These patient may have any of the features of cervical or uterine infection .
The majority of patients who come to medical attention have have had actinomyces – like organism noted in cervical smear .
In most cases , these are commensal organisms and don’t signify active infection .
Management by removal of IUD ,but penicilline treatment is advised .
Is an infection of the epidydimis caused by
avariety of bacterial species .
In men under the age of 35 years most cases of epididymitis are caused by ascending sexually transmitted infection usually with :
N . Gonorreae or C.tracomatis
In older men , infection is more often caused byenterobacteriaceas , Staph and Cornebacteriaspp
The epididymis is tender to palpation and ther e may be local pain .
If the infectin has arisen from ascending ,sexually transmitted infection there may be clinical picture of urethritis .
The condition may be difficlt to distinguish from testiculer torsion , in which case cergical removal is required .
Organisms infect the genital tract
Abnormal vaginal discharge
thick white chunky discharge
(like cottage cheese)
swelling of the vulvar skin
pain with intercourse
redness of the vulva
vaginal and labial itching, burning.
These infections are more common after taking an antibiotic.
A history and physical exam will be performed
A KOH smear identifies the Candida organism.
Treatment inlcudes over-the-counter vaginal creams such as miconazole
. Prescription pills such as fluconazole
vaginal suppositories, and creams are also available.
is a common sexually transmitted disease that affects both men and women Features of it include pain, itching and Painful blisters in genital area.Systemic symptom including fever & myalgia
Herpes simplex virus
A history and physical exam will be performed.
direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test can be done to establish the diagnosis Culture of a genital lesion may be done.
Treatment includes suppression with medical therapy (acyclovir, famciclovir)
pain medications acetaminophen
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications/NSAIDs (ibuprofen/Motrin or Advil, naproxen/Naprosyn).
The most common sexually transmitted disease
There are many types that can infect the genital areas of males and females, and some can also infect the mouth and throat
Unfortunately most people do not know they are infected with the it since the initial symptoms can be minor. In 90% of people the …. is cleared from the body without any treatment.
appear as a small bump or groups of bumps in the genital area.
They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower.
They appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected partner.
Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is advanced and difficult to treat.
Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer include vaginal pain, abnormal vaginal intercourse, painful intercourse, and vaginal fullness
penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)
anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN).
A history and physical exam will be done.
HPV is diagnosed by the appearance of the genital warts or through a PAP smear for women.
There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the problems that HPV can cause.
Most genital warts will go away on their own. Healthcare providers can provide medication or remove the warts directly.
There is a vaccine against HPV which can help prevent acquiring the disease.
Condoms during sexual intercourse are also recommended to protect against HPV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
frequent vaginal yeast infections
including candidal infection
muscular stiffness or aching rash of various types
including seborrheic dermatitis
swollen lymph glands
Other symptoms may occur when a patient becomes infected with other bacteria or fungi
The condition gradually destroys the immune system, preventing the body from fighting off infections. Most patients die of an overwhelming infection.
There is no cure or vaccine but special anti-viral medications can keep the virus under control.
It is often spread through sexual contact.
Men can become infected as well.
Both sexual partners need to be treated to eradicate the infection.
painful sexual intercourse, vaginal itching, vaginal discharge (greenish-yellow, frothy or foamy), foul smelling discharge, labial swelling, itching of the inner thighs.
burning after urination, burning after ejaculation, itching of urethra, slight discharge from urethra.
A history and physical exam will be performed
A wet prep of the vaginal secretions is done revealing the organisms.
and the treatment of all sexual partners to prevent recurrence.
One must avoid alcohol while taking metronidazole to prevent severe nausea and vomiting.
Intense itching that is worse at night
Thin pencil mark lines (burrows) that appear between fingers, in arm pits, at the waist, on inner elbows, on bottom of feet, around wrists, on buttocks, on shoulders, on knees, and around breasts
The infection can be easily spread through close contact amongst families, schools, child care centers or nursing homes.
A history and physical exam will be performed.
The diagnosis may be made by the appearance of the rash
involves using a prescription medicated cream.
The two most common are permethrin and crotamiton
Almost anyone with it will have itching in the area covered by pubic hair (often gets worse at night).
This itching may start soon after getting infected with it, or it may not start for up to 2 to 4 weeks after contact.
Skin reaction that is bluish-gray in color
Sores (lesions) in the genital area due to bites and scratching
is with malathion or an alternative insecticide