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G  Love. Kristin Brodie Jeff Colton Colin Galbraith Bushra Makiya Tiffany Santos. Objective. To create a glove that will generate heat to help keep one’s hand warm in a cold environment. What will this require? Source of heat How will they be different? Lightweight Smart

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G love

GLove

Kristin Brodie

Jeff Colton

Colin Galbraith

Bushra Makiya

Tiffany Santos


Objective

Objective

To create a glove that will generate heat to help keep one’s hand warm in a cold environment

  • What will this require?

  • Source of heat

  • How will they be different?

  • Lightweight

  • Smart

    • Temperature Sensor/Switch

    • Rechargeable Battery

    • Reversible Exothermic Material


Heat loss model

Heat Loss Model

Conduction

  • Cylindrical Hand

  • Power Lost @ -10C relative to Power Lost @ 25C

  • 2rLq = 2L(T1-T3)/R = 2.5W

    • R = Fabric Resistance + BL Resistance

Glove Layers

Convection


Overview

Overview


Battery operated glove

Battery Operated Glove


Wires

Wires


Mechanical testing data

Mechanical Testing Data


Electrical resistivity testing

Electrical Resistivity Testing

All wire diameters are ~40mm

*R for wire wrapped around a finger

**R for wire after work-hardening


Wire insulators

Wire Insulators

Teflon Tubing

Nextel Braids


Batteries

Batteries

  • Amphr

  • Size

  • Durability

  • Recharge ability


Field testing

Field Testing

My hand feels warm, stop recording

At what temperature is your hand comfortable?

Tested 10 subjects

  • Placed in freezer

  • Dressed in winter clothes

  • Wore gloves with heating element

  • 1.7W of power supplied

  • Temp recorded when subject said their hand was warm

    Conclusion

  • Thermal Switch should turn power off at ~32C


Temperature sensor switch

Temperature Sensor/Switch

Resistance/Current Testing


Fabric

Fabric

Blends of Polyester/Cotton

were tested

  • Thermal Testing

  • Input Power = 1.73 W

    • 100cm of wire

    • 3.7V

  • Temperature inside and outside

  • of glove measured

Power Generated From Glove: 2rLq=2L(T1-T3)/R = 1.73 W

L/R = 0.018 W/K

Power lost using 100P* under conditions previously modeled: 2.7 W


Phase change materials pcm

Phase Change Materials (PCM)

Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)

  • Tm = 26.6° C

  • Tc = 9.8° C

  • Hc = 151.0 J/g

  • Extremely hydrophilic

Octadecane

  • Tm = 27.2° C

  • Tc = 16.5° C

  • Hc = 283.5 J/g

  • Hydrophobic


Pcm incorporation

PCM Incorporation

PURPOSE: To prevent leakage from glove when PCM melts.

Ideal Process

  • Microspheres to maximize surface area

  • Polypropylene (PP) / High Density Polyethylene (PE)

    • Can be used to encapsulate microspheres

    • Can be drawn into fibers

  • Extrusion of PEG/PP: phase separation

    Complications

  • Different thermal properties of PEG and PE

  • Lack of Encapsulation Capabilities

  • Lack of Extrusion Facilities


Microsphere fabrication

Microsphere Fabrication

Successfully produced both paraffin and octadecane microspheres.

Complications

  • Inefficiency of filtering process

  • Large scale production


Final pcm designs

Final PCM Designs

Octadecane

  • Ground particles embedded in base material.

  • Polydimethyl Siloxane (PDMS) Resin

    • Thermal conductivity = 0.002W/m*K

  • 5g octadecane in 10ml (~7.5g) PDMS

PEG

  • Melting attempts failed.

  • Heat sealed in bags.

  • Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)

    • Thermal conductivity = 0.33W/m*K

  • 7g of PEG in ~11g LDPE

-(CH2-CH2)-


Comparison of pcm designs

Comparison of PCM Designs

Octadecane in PDMS

PEG in PE

Potential Heat: 2.36 J

Actual Heat: 1.16 J

Efficiency: 49%

Potential Heat: 0.66 J

Actual Heat: 0.43 J

Efficiency: 65%


Pcm conclusions

PCM Conclusions

  • Octadecane is more efficient than PEG.

  • Polyethylene is more efficient than PDMS.

  • Future Recommendations

    • Encapsulate octadecane in polyethylene.

    • Extrusion


Assembly

Assembly

Fabrication of Gloves

Inner Lining

Outer Cover

Sew wire into glove

Encapsulation of PCMs

Connect wires to temp. switch

Connect wires to battery


Cost analysis

Cost Analysis

Competitors: $40-$150


Results

Results


Future work

Future Work

Improvements

  • Encapsulation process

  • Incorporation of PCM into glove

  • Incorporation of thermally conductive material into PCM gloves

  • Incorporation of wire into glove

    • Insulation

  • Ease of access to recharge battery

  • On/Off switch

  • Application of Wire Insulation

  • Field Test Prototype w/ People or Heat Model

    • In Freezer


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements


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