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G  Love. Kristin Brodie Jeff Colton Colin Galbraith Bushra Makiya Tiffany Santos. Objective. To create a glove that will generate heat to help keep one’s hand warm in a cold environment. What will this require? Source of heat How will they be different? Lightweight Smart

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GLove

Kristin Brodie

Jeff Colton

Colin Galbraith

Bushra Makiya

Tiffany Santos


Objective

To create a glove that will generate heat to help keep one’s hand warm in a cold environment

  • What will this require?

  • Source of heat

  • How will they be different?

  • Lightweight

  • Smart

    • Temperature Sensor/Switch

    • Rechargeable Battery

    • Reversible Exothermic Material


Heat Loss Model

Conduction

  • Cylindrical Hand

  • Power Lost @ -10C relative to Power Lost @ 25C

  • 2rLq = 2L(T1-T3)/R = 2.5W

    • R = Fabric Resistance + BL Resistance

Glove Layers

Convection


Overview


Battery Operated Glove


Wires


Mechanical Testing Data


Electrical Resistivity Testing

All wire diameters are ~40mm

*R for wire wrapped around a finger

**R for wire after work-hardening


Wire Insulators

Teflon Tubing

Nextel Braids


Batteries

  • Amphr

  • Size

  • Durability

  • Recharge ability


Field Testing

My hand feels warm, stop recording

At what temperature is your hand comfortable?

Tested 10 subjects

  • Placed in freezer

  • Dressed in winter clothes

  • Wore gloves with heating element

  • 1.7W of power supplied

  • Temp recorded when subject said their hand was warm

    Conclusion

  • Thermal Switch should turn power off at ~32C


Temperature Sensor/Switch

Resistance/Current Testing


Fabric

Blends of Polyester/Cotton

were tested

  • Thermal Testing

  • Input Power = 1.73 W

    • 100cm of wire

    • 3.7V

  • Temperature inside and outside

  • of glove measured

Power Generated From Glove: 2rLq=2L(T1-T3)/R = 1.73 W

L/R = 0.018 W/K

Power lost using 100P* under conditions previously modeled: 2.7 W


Phase Change Materials (PCM)

Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)

  • Tm = 26.6° C

  • Tc = 9.8° C

  • Hc = 151.0 J/g

  • Extremely hydrophilic

Octadecane

  • Tm = 27.2° C

  • Tc = 16.5° C

  • Hc = 283.5 J/g

  • Hydrophobic


PCM Incorporation

PURPOSE: To prevent leakage from glove when PCM melts.

Ideal Process

  • Microspheres to maximize surface area

  • Polypropylene (PP) / High Density Polyethylene (PE)

    • Can be used to encapsulate microspheres

    • Can be drawn into fibers

  • Extrusion of PEG/PP: phase separation

    Complications

  • Different thermal properties of PEG and PE

  • Lack of Encapsulation Capabilities

  • Lack of Extrusion Facilities


Microsphere Fabrication

Successfully produced both paraffin and octadecane microspheres.

Complications

  • Inefficiency of filtering process

  • Large scale production


Final PCM Designs

Octadecane

  • Ground particles embedded in base material.

  • Polydimethyl Siloxane (PDMS) Resin

    • Thermal conductivity = 0.002W/m*K

  • 5g octadecane in 10ml (~7.5g) PDMS

PEG

  • Melting attempts failed.

  • Heat sealed in bags.

  • Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)

    • Thermal conductivity = 0.33W/m*K

  • 7g of PEG in ~11g LDPE

-(CH2-CH2)-


Comparison of PCM Designs

Octadecane in PDMS

PEG in PE

Potential Heat: 2.36 J

Actual Heat: 1.16 J

Efficiency: 49%

Potential Heat: 0.66 J

Actual Heat: 0.43 J

Efficiency: 65%


PCM Conclusions

  • Octadecane is more efficient than PEG.

  • Polyethylene is more efficient than PDMS.

  • Future Recommendations

    • Encapsulate octadecane in polyethylene.

    • Extrusion


Assembly

Fabrication of Gloves

Inner Lining

Outer Cover

Sew wire into glove

Encapsulation of PCMs

Connect wires to temp. switch

Connect wires to battery


Cost Analysis

Competitors: $40-$150


Results


Future Work

Improvements

  • Encapsulation process

  • Incorporation of PCM into glove

  • Incorporation of thermally conductive material into PCM gloves

  • Incorporation of wire into glove

    • Insulation

  • Ease of access to recharge battery

  • On/Off switch

  • Application of Wire Insulation

  • Field Test Prototype w/ People or Heat Model

    • In Freezer


Acknowledgements


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