Chapter 7 compounds and their bonds
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Chapter 7: Compounds and Their Bonds. Ionic Compounds Naming Ionic Formulas. Ionic Compounds. Attraction between + ions and - ions Electrons go from metals to nonmetals electron transfer metal nonmetal ion + ion – Electrons lost = Electrons gain.

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Chapter 7: Compounds and Their Bonds

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Chapter 7 compounds and their bonds

Chapter 7:Compounds and Their Bonds

Ionic Compounds

Naming Ionic Formulas


Ionic compounds

Ionic Compounds

  • Attraction between + ions and - ions

  • Electrons go from metals to nonmetals

    electron transfer

    metal nonmetal ion+ ion–

    Electrons lost = Electrons gain


Formulas of ionic compounds

Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions

atoms ions

 –

Na +  F : Na+ : F :  NaF



sodium fluorine sodium fluoride formula

Charge balance: 1+1- = 0


Writing a formula

Writing a Formula

Write the formula for the ionic compound that will form between Ba2+ and Cl.

Solution:

1. Balance charge with + and – ions

2. Write the positive ion of metal first, and the

negative ion Ba2+ ClCl

3. Write the number of ions needed as

subscriptsBaCl2


Learning check

Learning Check

Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions:

A. Na+, S2-

1) NaS 2) Na2S3) NaS2

B. Al3+, Cl-

1) AlCl3 2) AlCl 3) Al3Cl

C. Mg2+, N3-

1) MgN 2) Mg2N33) Mg3N2


Solution

Solution

A. Na+, S2-

2) Na2S

B. Al3+, Cl-

1) AlCl3

C. Mg2+, N3-

3) Mg3N2


Naming binary ionic compounds

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

  • Contain 2 different elements

  • Name the metal first, then the nonmetal as -ide.

  • Use name of a metal with a fixed charge

    Groups 1A, 2A, 3A

    and Ag, Zn, and Cd

    Examples:

    NaClsodium chloride

    ZnI2zinc iodide

    Al2O3aluminum oxide


Learning check1

Learning Check

Complete the names of the following binary compounds:

Na3Nsodium ________________

KBrpotassium________________

Al2O3aluminum ________________

MgS_________________________


Solution1

Solution

Complete the names of the following binary compounds:

Na3Nsodium nitride

KBrpotassium bromide

Al2O3aluminum oxide

MgSmagnesium sulfide


Transition metals

Transition Metals

Many form 2 or more positive ions

1+ 2+ 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+

Ag+ Cd2+Cu+,Cu2+ Fe2+, Fe3+

silver cadmium copper(I) ion iron(II) ion

ion ion copper (II) ion iron(III) ion

Zn2+

zinc ion


Learning check2

Learning Check

A. The formula for the ionic compound of

Na+ and O2- is

1) NaO2) Na2O3) NaO2

B. The formula of a compound of aluminum and chlorine is

1) Al3Cl2) AlCl23) AlCl3

C. The formula of Fe3+ and O2- is

1) Fe3O22) FeO33) Fe2O3


Solution2

Solution

A. The formula for the ionic compound of

Na+ and O2- is

2) Na2O

B. The formula of a compound of aluminum and chlorine is

3) AlCl3

C. The formula of Fe3+ and O2- is

3) Fe2O3


Names of variable ions

Names of Variable Ions

Use a roman number after the name of a metal that forms two or more ions

Transition metals and

the metals in groups 4A and 5A

FeCl3(Fe3+)iron (III) chloride

CuCl (Cu+ ) copper (I) chloride

SnF4 (Sn4+)tin (IV) fluoride

PbCl2 (Pb2+)lead (II) chloride

Fe2S3 (Fe3+)iron (III) sulfide


Learning check3

Learning Check

Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions:

FeBr2iron (_____) bromide

Cu2Ocopper (_____) oxide

SnCl4___(_____ ) ______________

Fe2O3________________________

CuS________________________


Solution3

Solution

Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions:

FeBr2iron ( II ) bromide

Cu2Ocopper ( I ) oxide

SnCl4tin (IV) chloride

Fe2O3iron (III) oxide

CuScopper (II) sulfide


Learning check4

Learning Check

Name the following compounds:

A. CaO

1) calcium oxide2) calcium(I) oxide

3) calcium (II) oxide

B. SnCl4

1) tin tetrachloride2) tin(II) chloride

3) tin(IV) chloride

C. Co2O3

1) cobalt oxide 2) cobalt (III) oxide

3) cobalt trioxide


Solution4

Solution

Name the following compounds:

A. CaO1) calcium oxide

B. SnCl43) tin(IV) chloride

C.Co2O32) cobalt (III) oxide


Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic Ions

Easy to remember

  • P-As-Se- = all 3- charge, all O4 attached

    • PO43- - Name Phosphate

  • S = O4 attached, but a charge of 2-

    • SO4 - Name Sulfate

  • Halogens = all O3, charge of 1-

    • ClO3 - Name Chlorate

  • Transition Metals = Very in charges - will be told

  • 2 to remember

    • Carbonate – CO32-

    • Nitrate – NO31-


  • Polyatomic naming

    Polyatomic Naming

    Changes to the number of Oxygen changes the name

    • Example = ClO3 - Chlorate

    • Gain an oxygen = ClO4

      • Name changes from – Chlorate to perchlorate

  • Lose an oxygen = ClO2

    • Name changes from – Chlorate to Chlorite

  • Lose two oxygens = ClO1

    • Name changes from – sulfate to hypochlorite


  • Naming polyatomics remember of oxygens

    Naming PolyatomicsRemember - # of Oxygens

    Gain an Oxygen

    PO5 - perphosphate

    PO4 – Phosphate (base polyatomic)

    Loss 1 Oxygens

    PO3 - phosphite

    Loss 2 Oxygens

    PO2 - hyperphosphite


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