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Bench Scale Tests of Selenium Removal from Mine Waters. Raymond J. Lovett* ShipShaper, LLP Morgantown, WV West Virginia Mine Drainage Task Force Symposium April 10-11, 2007. Support. National Mine Land Reclamation Center, West Virginia University, Paul Ziemkiewicz

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Bench Scale Tests of Selenium Removal from Mine Waters

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Bench scale tests of selenium removal from mine waters

Bench Scale Tests of Selenium Removal from Mine Waters

Raymond J. Lovett*

ShipShaper, LLP

Morgantown, WV

West Virginia Mine Drainage Task Force Symposium

April 10-11, 2007


Support

Support

  • National Mine Land Reclamation Center, West Virginia University, Paul Ziemkiewicz

  • United States Office of Surface Mining

    via OSM-WVU Cooperative Agreement


Problems

Problems

  • Overriding Concern

    • The new regulatory limit is 5 ug/L.

  • Specific Problems

    • Removing such low levels of Se

    • Differing chemistries of aqueous forms

      • Selenate, SeO4-2, Se(VI)

      • Selenite, SeO3-2, Se(IV)


Typical southern west virginia mine water

pH = 7.1

[Se] = 13 ug/L

[Fe] = 0.15 mg/L

[SO4-2]= 980 mg/L

Alkalinity = 235 mg/L as CaCO3

Typical Southern West Virginia Mine Water


Selenium removal difficulties

Selenium Removal Difficulties

  • Different dissolved species

  • No direct precipitation chemistries

  • Reduction of selenate is difficult

  • Sulfate may interfere


Objectives

Objectives

  • Low installation cost

  • Removal to 5 ug/L or less

  • Low operating cost

  • Passive


Demonstrated chemistries

Demonstrated Chemistries

  • Adsorption or co-precipitation by Fe(III) hydroxides

  • Reduction by Fe(0)

  • Reduction (adsorption) by Fe(II,III) mixed hydroxides (green rust)

  • Biological (bacterial reduction/metabolism)


Reduction with iron metal

Reduction with Iron Metal

  • SeO4-2 +Fe(0) => Fe(II,III) +Se(0)

  • SeO3-2 +Fe(0) => Fe(II,III) +Se(0)


Iron forms

Iron Forms


Apparatus 1

Apparatus 1


Operation side

Operation, Side


Operation top

Operation, Top


Iron afterwards

Iron Afterwards


Selenium removal

Selenium Removal


Exponential decay

Exponential Decay


Se removal 6 12 hours

Se Removal, 6-12 Hours


Rate of se removal

Rate of Se Removal


Other changes trial 1

Other ChangesTrial 1


Apparatus 2

Apparatus 2


Packed before

Packed, before


Packed during

Packed, during


Pipe filter

Pipe Filter


Recycle

Recycle


Selenium removal 2

Selenium Removal 2


Other changes trial 2

Other ChangesTrial 2


Iron after trial 2

Iron After Trial 2


Catenary field system

Catenary Field System


Reduction with iron metal1

Reduction with Iron Metal

  • Potential

    • Removal of selenate and selenite

    • Barrier

    • Passive

  • Problems

    • Iron Oxides/ Dissolved Fe, Mn

    • Exhaustion

    • Passivation

    • Expense (surface area)


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Iron metal removes selenite and selenate, but currently requires long contact times

  • Contact efficiency needs to be improved

  • Iron and manganese release complicates


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