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2,040,000. X 27. Dictators and War. Section 23.1. Objectives. Explain the circumstances that allowed for the Nazi rise to power in Germany Identify the characteristics of a Totalitarian state Evaluate the actions of Germany, Italy, Soviet Union and Japan before the outbreak of war.

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2 040 000

2,040,000

X 27


Dictators and war

Dictators and War

Section 23.1


Objectives

Objectives

Explain the circumstances that allowed for the Nazi rise to power in Germany

Identify the characteristics of a Totalitarian state

Evaluate the actions of Germany, Italy, Soviet Union and Japan before the outbreak of war


Adolf hitler fuhrer

Adolf Hitler - Fuhrer

German Leader during WWII

Austrian

Served with German Army during WWI

Joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) after WWI


Benito mussolini il duce

Benito Mussolini – Il Duce

Italian Leader during WWII

Born in Italy

Mussolini and the “Black Shirts” fought against Socialists and Communists to gain power


Joseph stalin

Joseph Stalin

Leader of the Soviet Union

Georgian

Following Vladimir Lenin’s death in 1924, Stalin took power of the Communist party in the Soviet Union


Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism

Single-Party dictatorship

Strong charismatic leader

State control over the economy

Use of fear to enforce the will of the state

Use of propaganda to indoctrinate citizens

Strict censorship of opposing opinions


Treaty of versailles

Treaty of Versailles

  • Restricted German Armed forces

  • Lost territory for the German Republic

  • Germany is forced to pay reparations

    • About 226 Billion Reich marks


Hitler s rise to power

Hitler’s Rise to Power

  • Value of German Mark

    • 1914-4:1 American Dollars

    • July 1923 – 160,000:1

    • August 1923 – 1,000,000:1

    • November 1923 – 130,000,000,000:1

  • 1923 Beer Hall Putsch

    • Hitler’s attempt to seize power in Germany

    • Arrested and sentenced to 9 months in prison


Hitler s rise to power1

Hitler’s Rise to Power

  • Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

    • Preached anti-Semitism

    • Outlined his plans on restoring the German Nation

    • Revered the “Master Race” of Aryans

  • Rise in Nazi support

    • Struggling economy, unemployment and a hope for a better Germany


Hitler gains power

Hitler Gains Power

  • By July 1932 the Nazi Party had became the largest party in the Reichstag (Legislature)

  • January 30, 1933 – President Paul von Hindenburg offered Adolf Hitler the position of Chancellor

  • February 1933 – Reichstag building was burned down

    • Hitler claimed it was an attack by Communists

  • August 1934 – Hindenburg dies suddenly

    • Hitler combines the office of President and Chancellor and assumes the role of Fuhrer


Fascism

Fascism

  • A government ideology that promotes Nationalism

    • People in a Fascist states main goal is to promote their country in any way possible

  • Benito Mussolini

    • Took power in Italy in 1922 forming a Fascist government

      • Outlawed political parties

      • Restricted the press

      • Created a secret police

  • Adolf Hitler

    • Looked up to Mussolini (at first) as a Fascist leader and instilled Fascism as the national ideology in Germany


Joseph stalin1

Joseph Stalin

  • Wanted to transform the Soviet Union into an industrial power

  • 1930’s Instituted the “Great Terror”

    • series of campaigns of political repression and persecution

    • Other political leaders, members of the Red Army and peasants were murdered

    • Deaths tolled around 10 million


German expansion

German Expansion

Lebensraum (Living Space)

Against the Treaty of Versailles – Hitler ordered the military to be rebuilt

1935 Invasion of the Saar

1936 Retaking Rhineland

1938 forced Austria to join Germany- Union called Anschluss

1938 Invasion of Sudetenland


Italian expansion

Italian Expansion

1935 invasion of Ethiopia

1939 invasion of Albania


Reactions to expansion

Reactions to Expansion

  • Appeasement- policy of granting concessions to a potential enemy in hope that it will maintain peace

    • Only led to Fascist leaders to more expansion

  • Reasons for Appeasement

    • Did not want to repeat World War I

    • Threat of the Soviet Union

    • France and Britain were not ready for war

  • Munich Pact- British PM Chamberlain met with Hitler to negotiate peace.

    • Hitler agreed to the terms (for now)


Japanese expansion

Japanese Expansion

  • NOT a totalitarian state

  • Feudal Monarchy – Emperor

  • Tough Economic times of the 1930’s caused for change

    • Militarist leaders believed that through expansion, it would bring economic prosperity

  • 1931 invasion of Manchuria

  • 1937 invasion of China

    • Rape of Nanjing

      • More than 200,000 civilian deaths

      • 20,000-80,000 Chinese women were raped by Japanese soldiers


Objectives1

Objectives

Explain the circumstances that allowed for the Nazi rise to power in Germany

Identify the characteristics of a Totalitarian state

Evaluate the actions of Germany, Italy, Soviet Union and Japan before the outbreak of war


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