Rule against perpetuities
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Rule Against Perpetuities. X. Constitutional Prohibition. “Perpetuities * * * are contrary to the genius of a free government, and shall never be allowed * * *.” Art. 1, § 26. Remote vesting of contingent interests can unduly restrain transfer of property. Trust Code § 112.036.

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Rule Against Perpetuities

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Rule against perpetuities

Rule Against Perpetuities

X


Constitutional prohibition

Constitutional Prohibition

  • “Perpetuities * * * are contrary to the genius of a free government, and shall never be allowed * * *.”

    • Art. 1, § 26.

  • Remote vesting of contingent interests can unduly restrain transfer of property.


Trust code 112 036

Trust Code § 112.036

“An interest is not good unless it must vest, if at all, not later than 21 years after some life in being at the time of the creation of the interest, plus a period of gestation.”


Interests affected by rap the test

Interests Affected by RAP: The Test

All of the following must be true for RAP to apply:

  • Future interest (not present interest),

  • Contingent (not totally vested), and

  • Held by a transferee (not grantor).


Interests affected by rap the interests

Interests Affected by RAP: The Interests

Thus, if you classify an interest as one of the following, you must check for a RAP violation:

  • Contingent remainders,

  • Vested remainders subject to open, and

  • Executory interests including trusts.


Armageddon rap test

Armageddon RAP Test

  • Ascertain lives in being.

  • Give each life in being a child who is born after date of trust creation

    • Thus, they are not lives in being.

  • Everyone dies, except new children.

  • Determine if beneficial interest in the trust must vest/not vest within 21 years.


Kettler tex sup ct 1964

Kettler – Tex. Sup. Ct. 1964

“I want my ranch * * * to be set up in a perpetual trust. I specify that it must never be sold. The income to be divided equally between my direct blood heirs as long as there is a blood heir of mine living * * *.”


Parts of trust needed rap compliance

Parts of trust needed RAP compliance

1. Time of trust creation

Page 47, note 1


Parts of trust needed rap compliance1

Parts of trust needed RAP compliance

2. Beneficial interests while trust ongoing

Page 47, note 2


Parts of trust needed rap compliance2

Parts of trust needed RAP compliance

3. Beneficial interests when trust ends

Page 47, note 3


What happens if rap violated

What happens if RAP violated?

  • 1. Common Law

    • Entire trust void; not just the portion that violated RAP.

      • Even if violation based on “wild” hypotheticals.


What happens if rap violated1

What happens if RAP violated?

  • 2. Wait and See

    • Based on reality, not hypotheticals.


What happens if rap violated2

What happens if RAP violated?

  • 3. Expand period


What happens if rap violated3

What happens if RAP violated?

  • 4. Cy pres – Property Code § 5.043

    • Court must reform or construe interests that violate RAP.

    • Follow settlor’s ascertainable general intent.

    • Court must liberally construe statute.

    • Court may use cy pres when it reforms or construes.


What happens if rap violated4

What happens if RAP violated?

  • 5. Uniform Statutory Rule Against Perpetuities Act

    • 90 year time period from the of the grant (rather than lives in being),

    • with a wait and see approach

    • then, reformation if interest still has not vested.

      • Thus, has never really been used because the Act is too recent to have allowed the 90 year time period to run.


What happens if rap violated5

What happens if RAP violated?

  • 6. RAP repeal

    • e.g., Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, Ohio, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Virginia Wisconsin.

    • Why do states repeal RAP?


Savings clause

Savings Clause

“ If a court of proper jurisdiction finds that this trust violates the Rule Against Perpetuities, the remaining trust property shall be distributed to [Beneficiary].”


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