25 years of research in nuclear and particle physics
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25(+) Years of Research in Nuclear and Particle Physics. Prof. Donald Koetke Valparaiso University. 5 February 2010. Outline. Nuclear Physics vs. Particle Physics Experiment Goals Experimental Methods A Timeline The Local Players The Future. Nuclear Physics.

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25(+) Years of Research in Nuclear and Particle Physics

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25(+) Years of Research in Nuclear and Particle Physics

Prof. Donald Koetke

Valparaiso University

5 February 2010


Outline

  • Nuclear Physics vs. Particle Physics

  • Experiment Goals

  • Experimental Methods

  • A Timeline

  • The Local Players

  • The Future


Nuclear Physics

  • Nucleus: any assembly of one or more nucleons

  • Nucleon: proton or neutron

  • Simplest nuclei: 1H (proton); 2H (deuteron)

  • Nuclear physics (I): any experiment whose goal it is to learn about the properties of the nucleus.

  • Nuclear physics (II): any experiment in which a nucleus plays a role (e.g., as a target)


Z

Nuclear Physics

N


Particle Physics

  • Particle physics (I): study of members of the “particle zoo”

    • Baryon family (n,p,o,o,+,-,o,+,-, …)

    • Meson family (,,,K,,,,B,D, …)

    • Lepton family (e,,,e,, )

    • Force propagators (,…,,W+,W-, o)

  • Particle physics (II): study of

    • quarks, leptons, bosons (photons, gluons, W+,W-, o)

  • Particle physics(III): studies of the Standard Model


Particle Physics


Research Goals

To understand and describe nature in terms of its most fundamental objects and interactions.


-

K+

+

How to do these experiments?

Source

Detector

H

Synchrotron

HydrogenInteraction Target

Linac

DAQ

Cu

Production Target

VelocitySelector

MomentumSelector


ANL

S17

Y*

US DOE Funding ANL & LANL

Research Timeline


S17

Why?

?


 = 53 d

S17

Why?

How do you test this theory?

What gets out of the center of the sun that you can measure?


Predicted

Measured

S17

Why?

“Solar Neutrino Problem”

A reaction rate used in the Solar Model is wrong!

Hypothesis:


 = 53 d

S17

Why?

How do you test this theory?

What gets out of the center of the sun that you can measure?


S17

Where?

4 MeV Dynamatron proton accelerator


4

S17


Appear

ANL

S17

Y*

US DOE Funding ANL & LANL

US DOE Research Grant at VU

Research Timeline


Predicted

Measured

Will NOT be detected in expt!

Appear

Why?

“Solar Neutrino Problem”

Hypothesis:


Appear

Why?

Implications --

Explain Cold Dark Matter?

Standard Model is Wrong


Appear

Where?


7400 ft

Town

Laboratory

Appear

Where?


Accelerator (LAMPF)

p (800 MeV)

Appear

Where?


Appear

30


Appear

ANL

S17

MEGA

Y*

US DOE Funding ANL & LANL

US DOE Research Grant at VU

Research Timeline


Lepton families do NOT mix.

MEGA

Why?

Q: Why NOT??

A: ?????


Accelerator (LAMPF)

p (800 MeV)

MEGA

Where?






28

MEGA


67

MEGA


Crystal Ball

Appear

ANL

S17

MEGA

Y*

US DOE Funding ANL & LANL

US DOE Research Grant at VU

Research Timeline


Crystal Ball

  • Previous data were limited in precision because of limited detection efficiencies.

Why?

  • We had access to a much more advanced detector with much better efficiency for detecting high energy photons.


Crystal Ball Detector

672 NaI detectors

Alternating Gradiant Synchrotron

Crystal Ball

Where?


Crystal Ball

43


Crystal Ball

43


Crystal Ball

Appear

ANL

NuSea

S17

MEGA

Y*

US DOE Funding ANL & LANL

US DOE Research Grant at VU

Research Timeline


u

u

d

d

d

u

Proton

Neutron

Nuclear Sea (of quarks)

NuSea

Why?

The sea quarks must be very important for nucleons


Nuclear Sea (of quarks)

NuSea

Where?


Nuclear Sea (of quarks)

NuSea

32


Crystal Ball

TWIST

Appear

ANL

NuSea

S17

MEGA

Y*

US DOE Funding ANL & LANL

US DOE Research Grant at VU

Research Timeline


Triumf Weak Interaction Symmetry Test

TWIST

Why?

Standard Model Values


Triumf Weak Interaction Symmetry Test

TWIST

Why?

Actual Measured Values


TWIST

Where?

Vancouver, BC


TWIST

36

  • Improve precision on the weak interaction physics by ~factor of 10!

  • So far all values agree with Standard Model (assumed) values.

  • Stay tuned for final results…

New & final results will be released at the APS meeting in D.C. next week!


Crystal Ball

TWIST

Appear

ANL

NuSea

S17

MEGA

Y*

US DOE Funding ANL & LANL

US DOE Research Grant at VU

Research Timeline


Solenoid Tracker At RHIC

STAR

Why?

  • Because the intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of every proton we have ever seen is exactly the same - but nobody knows how it comes to be this value!! We need to understand this at a fundamental level.

  • Because we now have the tools to do this experiment and the composite model of the proton is now well established - probably.


STAR

RHIC counter-circulating beams

Where?


STAR


STAR

369


STAR


53

STAR


STAR


nEDM

Crystal Ball

TWIST

Appear

ANL

NuSea

S17

MEGA

Y*

US DOE Funding ANL & LANL

US DOE Research Grant at VU

Research Timeline


Intrinsic spin angular momentum (1/2)

Qnet = 0.0

Magnetic Dipole Moment−1.9130427(5) μN(−9.6623640 × 10−27 J/T)

neutron Electric Dipole Moment

nEDM

Why?


nEDM

Where?


VU Physicists

  • Prof. Randall Fisk *

  • Prof. David Grosnick

  • Prof. Donald Koetke

  • Prof. Robert Manweiler

  • Mr. Paul Nord

  • Prof. Shirvel Stanislaus

  • Dr. Jason Webb *


VU Students

Dale Koetke (‘86), Philip Nickel (‘88), Hope Concannon (‘90), Jim Kolterman (‘91), Paul Nord (‘91), Jay Dittmann (‘92), Grant Kiehne (‘92), Laura Nickerson (‘96), Nathan Bachmann (‘93), Adam Gibson (‘00), Daniel Allen (‘00), Robert Greene (‘00), Christopher Hoffman (‘01), Jon Thoms (‘01), Steve Wolf (‘03), Louis Kastens (‘04), Sarah Schlobohm (‘04), Brian Bucher (‘05), Ross Corliss (‘05), Tim Rogers (‘05), Jason Summerlott (‘06), Josh Vredevoogd (‘07), Ted Hopkins (‘07), Noah Schroeder (‘08), Daniel Trubey (‘09), Ansel Hillmer (‘09), Nathan Kellams (‘10),Tim Olson (‘11), Megan Kania (‘11), Ben Barber (‘12)


  • We have had uninterrupted funding for over 25 years!

The Funding -

  • US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded this work with over $3.5M.

  • A “renewal proposal” is submitted every three years that is peer-reviewed.


The Future (?)

  • STAR & nEDM - long term commitments with potentially significant discoveries

  • Many more VU students will have opportunities to work on world-class physics experiments in nuclear and particle physics

  • There is unforeseen new physics that will be discovered in your lifetime; stay tuned!


Closing Reflections

  • This has been a wonderful journey that has been, and continies to be full of surprises!

  • Along with the work of all my colleagues in the department we have helped --

    • to do good science

    • to educate some very fine students

    • to spread the word: VU is an excellent university.

-- Thank you


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