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Regulatory mode orientation and anticipated regret in the ultimatum game Susanne Leder*, Mauro Giacomantonio** & Lucia Mannetti** * Zeppelin University ** Sapienza University Rome. Anticipated Regret in the Ultimatum Game. Regret:

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Regulatory mode orientation and anticipated regret in the ultimatum game

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Regulatory mode orientation and anticipated regret in the ultimatum game

  • Regulatory mode orientation and

  • anticipated regret in the ultimatum game

  • Susanne Leder*, Mauro Giacomantonio** & Lucia Mannetti**

  • * Zeppelin University

  • ** Sapienza University Rome


Anticipated regret in the ultimatum game

Anticipated Regret in the Ultimatum Game

Regret:

  • experienced when we realize that we should have made a different choice

  • anticipated when we expect to receive information (“feedback”) about the outcome of non-chosen options

    • consequence:regret-avoidance, regret-minimizing choices

e.g., Zeelenberg, 1999; Zeelenberg & Pieters, 2007


Anticipated regret in the ultimatum game1

EXPECTED

FEEDBACK

ANTICIPATED

REGRET

OFFER

“You will find out which would have been the lowest offer accepted by the responder”

“I don‘t want to regret offering too much”

reduces

Anticipated Regret in the Ultimatum Game

Two possibilities to anticipate/experience regret:

  • for offering too little, when offer is rejected

  • for offering too much, when offer is accepted

Zeelenberg & Beattie, 1997


The influence of locomotion and assessment

The Influence of Locomotion and Assessment

Hypothesis:

  • In persons with a predominant assessment orientation, compared to persons with a predominant locomotionorientation, offers in the ultimatum game are more strongly influenced by the tendency to minimize future regret

    Regulatory mode theory:

  • The two key functions of self-regulation, locomotion and assessment, can function as independent orientations or modes

    • Individuals may self-regulate giving priority either to locomotionor to assessment

Higgins, Kruglanski & Pierro, 2003; Kruglanski et al., 2000


The influence of locomotion and assessment1

The Influence of Locomotion and Assessment

LOCOMOTION

“just do it”

Aspect of self-regulation concerned with:

  • movement from state to state

  • initiating and maintaining goal-related movement

    Effects on decision-making:

  • strategy: progressive elimination

  • weak tendency to regret and to generate counterfactual thoughts

ASSESSMENT

“do the right thing”

Aspect of self-regulation concerned with:

  • making comparisons

  • critical appraisal of entities or states in order to judge relative quality

    Effects on decision-making:

  • strategy: full comparison

  • strong tendency to regret and to generate counterfactual thoughts

Avnet & Higgins, 2003; Higgins et al., 2003; Pierro et al., 2008


Study

Study

  • Hypothesis:

  • The effect of anticipated regret on offers in the ultimatum game is stronger in persons high in assessment (vs. high in locomotion)

  • Participants:

  • |N = 123 (82f, 41m), mean age: 23.14 (SD = 3.60)

  • Measures:

  • |Regret (expected feedback; cf. Zeelenberg & Beattie, 1997):

    • “You will find out which would have been the lowest offer accepted by the responder”

  • |Locomotion and assessment scales (Kruglanski et al., 2000)

  • |Offer (all participants were proposers)

  • Considerations (cf. Zeelenberg & Beattie, 1997):

    • “I did not want to feel regret over a too high offer”

    • “I did not want to feel regret over a too low offer”

    • “I wanted my offer to be as strategic as possible”

    • “I was afraid that my offer would not be accepted”


Results

Results

F(1,119) = 3.77, p < .05


Results1

Results

F(1,119) = 3.96, p < .05


Regulatory mode orientation and anticipated regret in the ultimatum game

  • * significant covariate (F(1,118) = 13.86; p < 0.01), effect of regulatory mode orientation n.s.


Discussion

Discussion

Regulatory mode orientation and anticipated regret:

  • Persons high in assessment (vs. high in locomotion):

    • make lower offers in the ultimatum game both if anticipated regret is salient and not salient

    • may take into account regret spontaneously before making a decision


Thank you

THANK YOU!


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