Microwave properties of rock salt and lime stone for detection of ultra high energy neutrinos
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Microwave Properties of Rock Salt and Lime Stone for Detection of Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos. Toshio Kamijo and Masami Chiba Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo Japan. 22 August, 2002 Hilton Waikoloa Village Hotel, Waikoloa, Hawaii USA

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Microwave Properties of Rock Salt and Lime Stone for Detection of Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos

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Microwave properties of rock salt and lime stone for detection of ultra high energy neutrinos

Microwave Properties ofRock Salt and Lime Stonefor Detection ofUltra-High Energy Neutrinos

ToshioKamijo and Masami Chiba

Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo Japan

22 August, 2002 Hilton Waikoloa Village Hotel, Waikoloa, Hawaii USA

AS26, SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation, Hawaii


Underground salt neutrino detector

Excess electrons in the shower from the UHE neutrino interaction generate coherent Cherenkov radiation with an emission angle of 66.

Underground Salt Neutrino Detector.

L

Array of the antennas

Underground rock salt dome

L >> 1-3 km

Hockley salt mine, USA

If the attenuation lengthLαof the rock salt would be large, we would be able to decrease the numbers of antennas for detectors.


Properties of materials required for uhe neutrino detector

Properties of materials required for UHE Neutrino Detector

  • Rock salt has higher density, larger refractive index and smaller radiation length than air and ice. In practice, attenuation length of materials must be long, because we want to decrease the number of antennas.

Measurement of attenuation lengthLα in the material

(a) Measurement of attenuation lengthLαin situ( P. Gorham et al. )best way

(b) Measurement of complex permittivityε at laboratory ( our work )


Microwave properties of rock salt and lime stone for detection of ultra high energy neutrinos

Definition of theattenuation lengthLα

Complex permittivityε:

Complex refractive indexn:

Complex propagation constant γ:

Lα :The length where the input microwave energy E0 decrease to 1/e times

( for low loss material )

E0

E=E0・e-αδ

Z = 0

(Skin depth)

Z=δ= 1/α

Example for NaCl single crystal at 9.4GHz

ε' = 5.9 , tanδ = (1 ~ 5) × 10-4 Lα= 8.4m ~ 42m

If the tanδ is constant, Lα= 180m ~ 790m at 500MHz


The methods of measuring complex permittivity at microwave region

The methods of measuring complex permittivity at microwave region

Cavity perturbation method was adopted.


Measurements of complex permittivity of rock salts and lime stones at x band

Measurements of complex permittivity of rock salts and lime stones at x-band

  • Free Space method

    Without the influence of extraneous waves using movable reference metal plate

  • Cavity perturbation method

    Without the influence of insertion holes of the cavity resonator


Measurements of complex permittivity of rock salts and lime stones at x band1

Measurements of complex permittivity of rock salts and lime stones at x-band

  • Free Space method

    Without the influence of extraneous waves using movable reference metal plate

Metal-backed sample

Reflection Coefficient


Free space method

Free space method

Extraneous direct wave

Extraneous direct wave

Extraneous scattered wave

Metal-backed sample

Transmittion and Reflection Coefficient

Reflection Coefficient

  • Complex permittivity are derived from reflection or transmittion coefficients of a sheet sample.

  • Measurements are troubled with extraneous direct wave and scattered wave from various surrounding objects as indicated by red arrows.


The principle of the measurement of the free space method

The principle of the measurement of the free space method.

Metal-backed sample

Reflected wave

Movable

Input wave

Reference metal plate

Movable

sample

Extraneous waves are cancelled vectorically by moving reference metal plate on the specimen, so that only the phases of the reflected wave change.


Radio wave scattering coefficient measuring system

Radio Wave Scattering Coefficient Measuring System

Directed wave

Up and Down


Sound wave scattering coefficient measuring system

Sound Wave Scattering Coefficient Measuring System


An example of vector diagram of received wave signals

An example of vector diagram of received wave signals.


Hallstadt mine austria

Rock Salt plate samples for free space method

Hallstadt mineAustria

Asse mine Germany

200mm × 200mm × 30mm

200mm × 200mm × 10mm

200mm × 200mm × 100mm


Real part of the complex permittivities in rock salts by the free space method at 9 4ghz

Sample thickness



calculated from Rp



calculated from Rs

(a) Hallstadt

11.1mm

5.9 ± 0.2

6.0 ± 0.2

(b) Hallstadt

30.1mm

5.9 ± 0.2

6.0 ± 0.2

(c) Asse Mine 99.0mm

5.9 ± 0.2

5.9 ± 0.2

Real part of the complex permittivities  in rock saltsby the free space method at 9.4GHz.

Metal-backed sample


Measurements of complex permittivity of rock salts and lime stones at x band2

Measurements of complex permittivity of rock salts and lime stones at x-band

  • Cavity perturbation method

    Without the influence of insertion holes of the cavity resonator


Principle of the cavity perturbation method

Principle of the Cavity Perturbation Method

Measurement of ε using a capacitor at low frequencies

metal plate (electrode)

S

sample

metal plate

With sample

Without sample

The changes of complex admittances ( capacitance C and Q of the capacitor ) are measured with and without sample by a impedance meter or a Q-meter with LC-Resonator Circuit.


Insertion holes in the cavity perturbation method at x band

Insertion Holes in the Cavity Perturbation Method at X-band

Rectangular TE10nCavity Resonator or Circular TM010 Cavity Resonator are used.

The sample is inserted through insertion holes, located in the place where only the electric fields exist. This place is looks like acapacitor at low frequency.

TE103 Cavity (ASTM, USA)

Why do the sample insertion holes exist in the place of electrodes ?

Measurement errors are increased by sample insertion holes.

We made TE10n cavity resonator without sample insertion holes at 9.4GHz.

TM010 Cavity (JIS, Japan)


Cavity perturbation method at x band

Cavity Perturbation Method at X-band

The changes of the resonance frequency and the Q of the cavity are measured with and without a sample by a Scalar- or Vector- Network Analyzer.

Perturbation Formula

For Rectangular TE10n mode Cavity

  • Small rod or stick samples are needed so that the the linearity of the perturbation formula holds.


X band perturbed cavity resonator without insertion holes

Exploded view of the cavity

X-band perturbed cavity resonator without insertion holes


Samples measured with the perturbative cavity resonator

Samples measured with the perturbative cavity resonator

  • Natural rock salt samples are very fragile, so that it is difficult to make small stick samples ( 1mm x 1mm x 10.2mm ).

  • Lime stone samples (especially Jura lime stone ) are rigid. The small stick samples are obtained by grinded using a milling machine.


Linearity of the perturbation measurements

Linearity of the perturbation measurements.


Linearity of the perturbation measurements1

Linearity of the perturbation measurements.


Linearity of the perturbation measurements2

Linearity of the perturbation measurements.


Linearity of the perturbation measurements3

Linearity of the perturbation measurements.


Real part of the permittivity vs filling factor for the rock salt and lime stone samples

Real part of the permittivity vs. filling factor for the rock salt and lime stone samples.


Imaginary part of the permittivity vs filling factor for the rock salt and lime stone samples

Imaginary part of the permittivity vs. filling factor for the rock salt and lime stone samples.


Microwave properties of rock salt and lime stone for detection of ultra high energy neutrinos

Sample



ε″10-3

tanδ

10-4

α at 9.4GHz

(m-1)

La=1/αat 9.4GHz

(m)

Single crystal (NaCl)

5.8 ± 0.2

3.2 ± 0.3

5.5 ± 0.5

0.13 ± .01

7.7±0.7

Rock Salt

Asse, Germany

5.8 ± 0.2

<7.8

<13

<0.31

>3.3

Rock Salt

Hallstadt, Austria

5.8 ± 0.2

<44

<76

<1.8

>0.56

Lime stone Kamaishi, Japan

9.0 ± 0.2

20

22

0.54

1.9

Lime stone

Mt. Jura, France

8.7 ± 0.2

60

69

1.7

0.59

Comparison among single crystal NaCl, Asse rock salt, Hallstadt rock salt, Kamaishi lime stone and Jura lime stone in , ε″ , tand =ε″/ ,α at 9.4GHz, 1/αat 9.4GHz.


Microwave properties of rock salt and lime stone for detection of ultra high energy neutrinos

Summarized data

NaCl, Dielectric Materials and Applications (A. R. von Hippel ed.), 1954

in situmeasurements by P. Gorham et al.

tanδ=1×10-4

Purest natural salt

Typical good salt dome (GPR)

Best salt bed halite (GPR)

NaCl single crystal

Rock salt Hockley mine, USA

NaCl, Hippel 25GHz

Rock salt, Asse mine, Germany

Lime stone, Kamaishi, Japan

Rock salt, Halstadt mine, Austria

Lime stone, Mt. Jura, France

ε'=5.9


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • The attenuation length of various rock salts and lime stones are measured by the cavity perturbation method at 9.4GHz and frequency dependence in 7-12GHz.

  • The attenuation length of rock salts in Hockley mine, USA and Asse mine, Germany are long, they are over 100 m at 500MHz if the tanδ is constant with respect to the frequency, so that they would become a candidate for UHE Neutrino Detector site.

  • The attenuation length of these rock salts below X-band frequency are required in order to seek the optimum frequency of the Neutrino detector. We have a plan to make cavity resonators without insertion holes operated below X-band.


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