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BIOL 2030 Human Anatomy & Physiology II. What are the functions of the respiratory system ?. Major: Bring air in and out. ________________ : The mechanical process of moving air in and out. Allow gas exchange CO2 O2 N2 Others. ________________ : 4 steps… 1) 2) 3) 4) .

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Major: Bring air in and out

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Major bring air in and out

BIOL 2030 Human Anatomy & Physiology II

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

  • Major:

  • Bring air in and out

________________:The mechanical process of moving air in and out

  • Allow gas exchange CO2O2N2Others

________________:4 steps…

1)

2)

3)

4)

Minor: ____________________


Major bring air in and out

Upper Respiratory Tract

Lower Respiratory Tract

How do we get there from here (anatomy)?

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*


Major bring air in and out

How does your nose contribute?


Major bring air in and out

How does your nose contribute?

_______________empty into nasal cavity

Nasal cavitylined with _____________ ___________


Major bring air in and out

How does your nose contribute?

_____________:a vertical wall separating right and left halves of nasal cavity

Comprised of cartilage and bone

______________


Major bring air in and out

How does your nose contribute?

___________ Cavities or spaces in bones of skull, empty into the nasal cavity.

_________ inflammation of membranes lining sinus cavities


Major bring air in and out

What are the respiratory functions of the oral cavity?

__________ _________ for air and exit for _____________

Separated from nasal cavity by a horizontal wall the _________ ____________


Major bring air in and out

Eustachiantubes

What are the regions of the pharynx?

3 regions of the pharynx:

Eustachian (audio) tubes open into nasopharynx

______________internal nares to soft palate

______________soft palate to hyoid bone

______________hyoid bone to esophagus


Major bring air in and out

What are the functions of the larynx?

Comprised of several cartilages…

Know:***

Functions to _____________ to trachea and to _____________

Tracheotomy or Cricothyrotomy


Major bring air in and out

What are the functions of the larynx?

LaryngealEndoscopy


Major bring air in and out

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What type of section is this?

Midsagittal


Major bring air in and out

How does the form of the trachea relate to the function?

  • TracheaComprised of:

  • ________________

  • ________________

  • _______________ Why?

  • ________________pseudostratified ciliated epithelium


Major bring air in and out

What is the tracheobronchial tree?

Bronchoscopy

Trachea branches forming 2 ______________

These branch to form __________ _________

These branch to form __________ _________


Major bring air in and out

If you inhale a penny where should you look for it?

The last cartilage of the trachea is the _______ w/c has 2 openings

When something is aspirated it causes ___________ until past the carina

Which lung do objects usually end up in?


Major bring air in and out

What marks the transition to respiratory zone?

  • ____________ ___________

  • Lack ________ _________

  • _____________ epithelium

  • ___________ allow recoil

  • _____________

  • small sacs

  • squamous epithelium = ________________


Major bring air in and out

Are both lungs identical?

2 lungs

___________larger and 3 lobes

___________smaller and 2 lobes

Each has an:

________= superior tip

________= entrance of bronchi, vessels

________= all the structures entering/exiting the hilum


Major bring air in and out

Why is a “sucking chest wound” so serious?

The lungs are surrounded by serous membranes collectively called…_________

2 types:


Major bring air in and out

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What type of section?

Transverse


Major bring air in and out

What type of blood supply do the lungs have?

2 major routes of circulation:

________________Arteries and veins

Oxygenated or not?

___________________Bronchial arteries and veins

Oxygenated or not?


Major bring air in and out

General Gas Law:

  • ___________

  • ___________

  • Pleural pressureand ____________

  • _________ _________

= volume change necessary to generate pressure

How do we ventilate (physics)?


Major bring air in and out

How can we measure lung fitness?

____________________ = volume during normal inspiration or expiration

____________________= forceful inspiration after tidal inspiration

____________________ = forceful expiration after tidal expiration

____________________ = air still remaining after forceful expiration

________________ = sum of tidal, and both reserves

________________ = sum of all volumes


Major bring air in and out

How can we measure lung fitness (pulmonary volumes)?


Major bring air in and out

How do we respire?

Diffusion acrossmembranes...

  • Membrane includes _____, ___________, _________________, ________________, ______________ and ________________


Major bring air in and out

How do we respire?

Dalton’s Law… Partial Pressure of gases:The pressure each gas in a mixture of gases contributes to the ______________.

760mmHg (1ATM) mixed =


Major bring air in and out

Soda water!

What factors affect hemoglobin O2 saturation?

  • Partial Pressure of O2PO2at lungs ~ 104mmHg… usually ~____________

  • PO2 at tissues ~ 40mmHg… usually ~ ____________

  • pH: H+ cause “globins” to change shape… ____________ >pH = _________________ <pH = _________________


Major bring air in and out

Oxygen/Hemoglobin dissociation at rest...


Major bring air in and out

Soda water!

What factors affect hemoglobin O2 saturation?

  • Partial Pressure of CO2also affects because of CO2 becoming H2CO3 >PCO2 = ______________

  • Temperature: >temp = ________

  • ______ produced by erythrocytes as they metabolize glucosebinds to hemoglobin… ________________


Major bring air in and out

Oxygen/Hemoglobin dissociation shifting the curve...


Major bring air in and out

What factors involved with CO2 transportation?

________________:

Hemoglobin with bound O2 has less affinity for CO2 and vice versa.

________________:

Cl- ions are exchanged for HCO3- ions, in the tissue capillaries and pulmonary capillaries respectively.


Major bring air in and out

What effects does CO2 have on respiratory rate?

How does this relate to snorkeling?


Major bring air in and out

How is breathing rate regulated?

_______________: Clusters of neurons in the ___________ ___________ and related neurons in the _______ regulate the contraction of muscles associated with ______________.

_______________: Central chemorecptors in medulla oblongata and peripheral in aorta/carotid arteries

Others:


Major bring air in and out

What is the big picture?

*Air moves into respiratory tract via…

*Gases are exchanged across the respiratory membrane…How?Where?Why?

*O2 in the blood is transported via…Why does it bind in lungs and release in tissues?What affects its transport (saturation)?

*CO2 is transported via…Why does it leave the cells (tissues) and enter the blood?Why does it leave the blood and enter the lungs?

*Air moves out of the respiratory tract via...


Major bring air in and out

What diseases affect the respiratory system?

  • Emphysema

  • Cystic fibrosis

  • Lung CA

  • Strep throat

  • Common Cold

  • Whooping cough

  • Pneumonia

  • Flu

  • Pneumothorax


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