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BIOL 2030 Human Anatomy & Physiology II. What are the functions of the respiratory system ?. Major: Bring air in and out. ________________ : The mechanical process of moving air in and out. Allow gas exchange CO2 O2 N2 Others. ________________ : 4 steps… 1) 2) 3) 4) .

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BIOL 2030 Human Anatomy & Physiology II

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

  • Major:

  • Bring air in and out

________________:The mechanical process of moving air in and out

  • Allow gas exchange CO2O2N2Others

________________:4 steps…

1)

2)

3)

4)

Minor: ____________________


Upper Respiratory Tract

Lower Respiratory Tract

How do we get there from here (anatomy)?

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*



How does your nose contribute?

_______________empty into nasal cavity

Nasal cavitylined with _____________ ___________


How does your nose contribute?

_____________:a vertical wall separating right and left halves of nasal cavity

Comprised of cartilage and bone

______________


How does your nose contribute?

___________ Cavities or spaces in bones of skull, empty into the nasal cavity.

_________ inflammation of membranes lining sinus cavities


What are the respiratory functions of the oral cavity?

__________ _________ for air and exit for _____________

Separated from nasal cavity by a horizontal wall the _________ ____________


Eustachiantubes

What are the regions of the pharynx?

3 regions of the pharynx:

Eustachian (audio) tubes open into nasopharynx

______________internal nares to soft palate

______________soft palate to hyoid bone

______________hyoid bone to esophagus


What are the functions of the larynx?

Comprised of several cartilages…

Know:***

Functions to _____________ to trachea and to _____________

Tracheotomy or Cricothyrotomy



?

?

?

?

What type of section is this?

Midsagittal


How does the form of the trachea relate to the function?

  • TracheaComprised of:

  • ________________

  • ________________

  • _______________ Why?

  • ________________pseudostratified ciliated epithelium


What is the tracheobronchial tree?

Bronchoscopy

Trachea branches forming 2 ______________

These branch to form __________ _________

These branch to form __________ _________


If you inhale a penny where should you look for it?

The last cartilage of the trachea is the _______ w/c has 2 openings

When something is aspirated it causes ___________ until past the carina

Which lung do objects usually end up in?


What marks the transition to respiratory zone?

  • ____________ ___________

  • Lack ________ _________

  • _____________ epithelium

  • ___________ allow recoil

  • _____________

  • small sacs

  • squamous epithelium = ________________


Are both lungs identical?

2 lungs

___________larger and 3 lobes

___________smaller and 2 lobes

Each has an:

________= superior tip

________= entrance of bronchi, vessels

________= all the structures entering/exiting the hilum


Why is a “sucking chest wound” so serious?

The lungs are surrounded by serous membranes collectively called…_________

2 types:


?

?

?

?

?

What type of section?

Transverse


What type of blood supply do the lungs have?

2 major routes of circulation:

________________Arteries and veins

Oxygenated or not?

___________________Bronchial arteries and veins

Oxygenated or not?


General Gas Law:

  • ___________

  • ___________

  • Pleural pressureand ____________

  • _________ _________

= volume change necessary to generate pressure

How do we ventilate (physics)?


How can we measure lung fitness?

____________________ = volume during normal inspiration or expiration

____________________= forceful inspiration after tidal inspiration

____________________ = forceful expiration after tidal expiration

____________________ = air still remaining after forceful expiration

________________ = sum of tidal, and both reserves

________________ = sum of all volumes



How do we respire?

Diffusion acrossmembranes...

  • Membrane includes _____, ___________, _________________, ________________, ______________ and ________________


How do we respire?

Dalton’s Law… Partial Pressure of gases:The pressure each gas in a mixture of gases contributes to the ______________.

760mmHg (1ATM) mixed =


Soda water!

What factors affect hemoglobin O2 saturation?

  • Partial Pressure of O2PO2at lungs ~ 104mmHg… usually ~____________

  • PO2 at tissues ~ 40mmHg… usually ~ ____________

  • pH: H+ cause “globins” to change shape… ____________ >pH = _________________ <pH = _________________



Soda water!

What factors affect hemoglobin O2 saturation?

  • Partial Pressure of CO2also affects because of CO2 becoming H2CO3 >PCO2 = ______________

  • Temperature: >temp = ________

  • ______ produced by erythrocytes as they metabolize glucosebinds to hemoglobin… ________________



What factors involved with CO2 transportation?

________________:

Hemoglobin with bound O2 has less affinity for CO2 and vice versa.

________________:

Cl- ions are exchanged for HCO3- ions, in the tissue capillaries and pulmonary capillaries respectively.


What effects does CO2 have on respiratory rate?

How does this relate to snorkeling?


How is breathing rate regulated?

_______________: Clusters of neurons in the ___________ ___________ and related neurons in the _______ regulate the contraction of muscles associated with ______________.

_______________: Central chemorecptors in medulla oblongata and peripheral in aorta/carotid arteries

Others:


What is the big picture?

*Air moves into respiratory tract via…

*Gases are exchanged across the respiratory membrane…How?Where?Why?

*O2 in the blood is transported via…Why does it bind in lungs and release in tissues?What affects its transport (saturation)?

*CO2 is transported via…Why does it leave the cells (tissues) and enter the blood?Why does it leave the blood and enter the lungs?

*Air moves out of the respiratory tract via...


What diseases affect the respiratory system?

  • Emphysema

  • Cystic fibrosis

  • Lung CA

  • Strep throat

  • Common Cold

  • Whooping cough

  • Pneumonia

  • Flu

  • Pneumothorax


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