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PENGANTAR TEKNOLOGI WEB. Pengantar Internet (HTTP) Antonius Rachmat C. LAN. LAN consists of the following components: LAN file server is a repository of various software and data files for the network (optional) Nodes are the client machines on the LAN

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pengantar teknologi web

PENGANTAR TEKNOLOGI WEB

Pengantar Internet (HTTP)

Antonius Rachmat C

slide2
LAN
  • LAN consists of the following components:
    • LAN file server is a repository of various software and data files for the network (optional)
    • Nodes are the client machines on the LAN
    • Wired or wireless communication media that connects the devices
  • LAN network interface card (NIC) is a special adapter that links an individual device to the communication medium and specifies:
    • The rate of data transmission;
    • The size of the message units;
    • Addressing information attached to each message
    • The network topology
wan wireless
WAN + Wireless
  • Wide area networks (WANs) are networks that cover large geographic areas.
    • WANs typically connect multiple LANs
    • WANs have large capacity and combine multiple channels (fiber optic, satellite, microwave, etc.)
    • WANs are provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies (Sprint, AT&T, etc.)
  • Wireless:
    • Wifi - simple wireless networks
    • WLAN - expanding the wireless connection
    • WiMax - Long-range wireless
what is internet
What is Internet?

Server

Client

intranet vs extranet
Intranet vs Extranet
  • Intranet: is a private enterprise network for information gathering and distribution within an organization.
  • Extranet: is a community of interest created by extending an intranet to selected entities external to an organization.
internet
Internet
  • Inter-connections network
    • Memiliki bnyk sub network
    • Komputer yg berbeda-beda, media penghubung yg berbeda-beda = heterogen
  • Internet = hardware, WWW (web) = software
  • Beberapa komponen:
    • Router, client, server, modem, DNS, protocol, TCP/IP
internet1
Internet
  • Router: hardware yang mengatur jalur data sebuah paket (message)
  • Client: bagian yg meminta layanan ke server
  • Server: bagian yg melayani client (response)
  • Modem (modulator/demodulator):
    • Modulator merupakan bagian yang mengubah sinyal informasi kedalam sinyal pembawa (Carrier) dan siap untuk dikirimkan.
    • Demodulator adalah bagian yang memisahkan sinyal informasi (yang berisi data atau pesan) dari sinyal pembawa (carrier) yang diterima sehingga informasi tersebut dapat diterima dengan baik.
slide8
DNS : Domain Name Services
    • Mengasosiasikan setiap node (komputer) yg terhubung ke Internet dengan sebuah nama yg “human readable”
    • Mis: 202.134.201.137 => google.com
  • Protocol: aturan komunikasi data
  • TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol
    • Protocol untuk Internet
slide9
TCP: mengatur transmisi data
    • Data dibagi menjadi paket2 kecil (~1.5kb)
    • Paket tsb dikirim lwt router
  • IP: menerjemahkan aturan dari satu network ke network yg lain
    • Memungkinkan antar jaringan berbeda saling berkomunikasi
penjelasan
Penjelasan
  • Protokol application layer: bertanggung jawab untuk menyediakan akses kepada aplikasi terhadap layanan jaringan TCP/IP.
  • Protokol host to network: berguna untuk membuat komunikasi menggunakan sesi koneksi yang bersifat connection-oriented atau broadcast yang bersifat connectionless.
penjelasan1
Penjelasan
  • Protokol lapisan network: bertanggung jawab untuk melakukan pemetaan (routing) dan enkapsulasi paket-paket data jaringan menjadi paket-paket IP.
  • Protokol lapisan physical: bertanggung jawab untuk meletakkan frame-frame jaringan di atas media jaringan yang digunakan.
sejarah internet

1969

DARPA (Defence Advance Research Project Agency) memulai Riset Internet

1972

Diperkenalkan sebuah jaringan dengan nama ARPANET

1977

Terdapat 100 PC dan Mainframe yang terkoneksi ke ARPANET dan sebagian besar dari Universitas : UCLA, Stanford Institute, UC Santa Barbara, dan University of Utah

1980

ARPANET pecah menjadi ARPANET dan MILNET (militer)‏

1986

National Science Foundation (NSF) mengeluarkan NSFNET. Jaringan dengan kecepatan 56kbps dan merupakan embrio dari Internet sekarang ini

1987

Berdiri UUNET merupakan provider Internet komersial pertama

1990

ARPANET dibubarkan. Australia, Skandinavia, Inggris, Perancis, Jerman, Kanada, dan Jepang terkoneksi dengan NSFNET

1992

Jumlah Host Internet mencapai 1 juta

2004

Jumlah Host Internet mencapai 5 juta diseluruh dunia

Sejarah Internet
internet di indonesia

1985

Berdiri UUNET yang menghubungkan Universitas Indonesia, Universitas Terbuka, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Universitas Gajahmada, dan Institut Teknologi Surabaya.

1990

Dibangun infrastruktur jaringan Nasional

1992

Pertemuan pertama membahas teknologi internet oleh BPP Teknologi, LAPAN, STT Telkom Bandung, dan Universitas Indonesia. Dibentuk Internet Paguyuban

1994

Top Level Domain Id masuk ke Indonesia

1994

IPTEKNET Sebagai Internet Service Provider Pertama di Indonesia

Internet di Indonesia
domain
Domain
  • Adalah alamat permanen situs di dunia internet
  • Identifikasi sebuah situs Istilah yang umum digunakan adalah URL.

http://www.fppti.or.id

http://www.ipi.or.idhttp://www.iwapi-jabar.or.id

generic domains tata nama
Generic Domainstata nama
  • xxx.com : commercial http://www.kompas.com
  • xxx.edu : dunia pendidikan http://www.upi.edu
  • xxx.ac.id : pendidikan
  • xxx.go.id : pemerintahan http://www.bandung.go.id
  • xxx.or.id :organisasi non profit http://www.ipi.or.id
country specific domains
Country-Specific Domains
  • Berektensi dua huruf second level domain)- Indonesia berekstensi idhttp://www.itb.ac.id- Australia auhttp://nla.gov.au- Jepang berekstensi .jphttp://www.jla.or.jp
  • Di Indonesia: dikenal dengan domain-co.id, .ac.id, .go.id, .mil.id, .or.id
types of websites
Types of Websites
  • Portal Web site- www.yahoo.com
  • News Web site- www.cnn.com
  • Informational web site- www.smidec.gov.my
  • Business/ Marketing web site- www.kraft.com
  • Educational website- www.resepi.mesra.net
  • Entertainment web site- www.shockwave.com
  • Advocacy web site- www.hsus.org
  • Personal web site- www.ukm.my/radzuan
  • Blog
slide19
HTTP
  • Hypertext Transport Protocol (RFC 1945)
  • Tim Berners-Lee, 1991
  • Language of the Web
    • Protocol yang digunakan untuk komunikasi antara web browsers dan web servers
    • Since 1990
  • TCP port 80
  • Penyempurnaan HTTP 1.0 menjadi versi 1.1 dispesifikasikan oleh IETF dengan RFC 2616
  • HTTP merupakan implementasi dari protokol TCP
  • Bersifat “Stateless”
    • Tidak ada informasi yang disimpan
    • Solusi? Cookies & Session
http 2
HTTP (2)
  • HTTP bersifat request – response:
    • HTTP client (user agent misalnya) mengirimkan permintaan (request) ke HTTP server dan server meresponse sesuai request tersebut
  • User agent: Mozilla, Netscape, Microsoft Internet Explorer atau browser berbasis teks, Lynx atau links
  • Perbedaan mendasar antara HTTP/1.1 dengan HTTP/1.0 adalah penggunaan hubungan persistent.
  • HTTP/1.0 membuka satu koneksi untuk tiap permintaan URI
    • header = Connection: close
  • HTTP/1.1 dapat menggunakan sebuah koneksi TCP untuk beberapa permintaan URI (persistent)
    • header = Connection: Keep-Alive
    • kecuali jika client menyatakan tidak hendak menggunakan hubungan persistent (header = Connection: close).
http client browser
HTTP Client (Browser)
  • NCSA Mosaic (M. Andreesen)
  • Netscape Navigator (M. Andreesen)
  • Microsoft Internet Explorer
  • Browser Wars of the 1990\'s
  • Mozilla (Netscape Open Sourced)
  • Now Mozilla Firefox
  • Apple Safari (from Konqueror)
  • Others (Opera, Lynx)
universal resource location url
Universal Resource Location (URL)

http://www.stanford.edu:80/class/cs193i/schedule.html

Protocol (Scheme)

universal resource location url1
Universal Resource Location (URL)

http://www.stanford.edu:80/class/cs193i/schedule.html

Host Name

universal resource location url2
Universal Resource Location (URL)

http://www.stanford.edu:80/class/cs193i/schedule.html

Port

universal resource location url3
Universal Resource Location (URL)

http://www.stanford.edu:80/class/cs193i/schedule.html

Path

url path file system path
URL Path = File System Path
  • URL Path “/” maps to Document Root
  • Let’s say Document Root is C:\htdocs\

/ => C:\htdocs\

/images/ => C:\htdocs\images\

/a/X.html => C:\htdocs\a\X.html

http 1 0 is stateless
HTTP 1.0 is Stateless
  • Each request/response pair uses its own connection; doesn\'t know about other pairs
  • "One-Shot"
    • Server Fulfills Request, and closes connection

+ Simple

─ Hard to design pages that are "logically connected" (e.g. Amazon checkout)

what is the url path
What is the URL path?
  • http://foo.com:8080/a/b/bar.html?hello.there#binky
  • query begins with ?
    • hello.there
  • fragment begins with #
    • binky
  • So, path is between host and query/fragment
    • /a/b/bar.html
  • But Request-Line includes Query
fragment
Fragment
  • Used by client side to scroll to named anchors
  • <a name="Chapter1">...</a>
  • http://foo.com/b.html#Chapter1
request string
Request String
  • The path & query part of the URL
  • NOT the fragment part
  • http://foo.com/dir/b.html?info=extra&hello
    • /dir/b.html?info=extra&hello is the Request String
http request messages
HTTP Request Messages
  • GET – retrieve document specified by URL
  • PUT – store specified document under given URL
  • HEAD – retrieve info. about document specified by URL
  • POST – give information (eg. annotation) to the server
  • DELETE – remove document specified by URL
  • CONNECT – for use by caches
example request response
Example Request / Response
  • Client requests

http://solaria.stanford.edu/food/index.html

  • Client sends

GET /food/index.html HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n

  • Server sees request with path /food/index.html
  • Server maps onto Document Root

G:/webroot + /food/index.html

  • Server sends back file over HTTP (e.g. HTML file)
method head
Method: Head
  • Gunakan Telnet
method get
Method: GET
  • Buat file cobaget.php
slide36
GET
  • Ketik perintah berikut:
http response codes
HTTP Response Codes
  • 1xx – Informational – request received, processing
  • 2xx – Success – action received, understood, accepted
  • 3xx – Redirection – further action necessary
  • 4xx – Client Error – bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled
  • 5xx – Server Error – server failed
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