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Critical Thinking. The Ultimate Key Success Factor. Agenda. What is critical thinking? How does the brain work? What are some of the critical thinking techniques that I can easily learn and use?. Why is critical thinking important?. It is a means of improving your ability to learn

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Critical thinking

Critical Thinking

The Ultimate Key Success Factor


Agenda

Agenda

  • What is critical thinking?

  • How does the brain work?

  • What are some of the critical thinking techniques that I can easily learn and use?


Why is critical thinking important

Why is critical thinking important?

  • It is a means of improving your ability to learn

  • It can help you better understand what you read

  • It can help you to make more convincing arguments

  • It facilitates communication

  • It can help you to address the three basic questions


Critical thinking socrates

Critical Thinking: Socrates

From Socrates, we get great emphasis on argument and critical thinking. Socrates chose to make argument the main thinking tool. Within argument, there was to be critical thinking:

Why do you say that?

What do you mean by that?

"To find yourself, think for yourself."  --  Socrates


Critical thinking aristotle

Critical Thinking: Aristotle

From Aristotle we get a type of logic, based on identity and non-identity, as well as on inclusion and exclusion.

"It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it."   --  Aristotle


Critical thinking plato

Critical Thinking: Plato

From Plato we get the notion that there is the "truth" somewhere but that we have to search for it to find it.

The way to search for the truth is to use critical thinking to attack what is untrue.

“Knowledge is true opinion.”-- Plato


Critical thinking belardo

Critical Thinking: Belardo

“Critical Thinking is purposeful goal directed thinking.

It is an art of thinking about

what one is thinking about

in order to make it more

accurate, clear and defensible”


How does the mind work

How Does the Mind Work?


Your brain

Your Brain

“The brain is the organ of destiny. It holds within its humming mechanism secrets that will determine the future of the human race.”

-- Wilder Penfield

(from The Second Career, 1963)


How do you think the brain

How do you Think?  The Brain

  • “The human brain, then, is the most complicated organization of matter that we know.”

    • – Isaac Asimov (from the foreword to The Three-Pound Universe by J. Hooper and D. Teresi, 1986)


Brain intelligence historical

Brain & Intelligence - Historical

  • Aristotle believed that brain size wasrelatedto intelligence.

  • Broca believed that cranial volumereflectedintelligence, hence:

    • Women were inferior to men (smaller brain sizes)

    • Non-Europeans were inferior to Europeans

  • Broca’s work was superceded by the neuronal doctrine (Waldayer)

    • Neurons are the processing units of the brain.


The brain complexity

The Brain: Complexity

Human

Jack Rabbit

“The human brain is generally regarded as a complex web of adaptations built into the nervous system, even though no one knows how.”

– Michael S. Gazzaniga (from The Mind’s Past, 1998)


The brain a computer

The Brain: A Computer?

“The human brain is an amazing piece of engineering that allows us to process billions of bits of information within a compact, powerful, continuously changing computer that we carry on our shoulders our entire lives”

-- Nancy C. Andreasen


The brain a network of cells

The Brain: A Network of Cells

“The adult human brain weights about 3 pounds and consists of about 100 billion nerve cells or neurons. These neurons are responsible for the transmission of information throughout the brain. The outer wrinkled mantle of the brain called the cerebral cortex contains about 30 billion of these neurons connected to each other by means of a million billion neuronal connections called synapses. The neurons communicate with each other via these connections.”


Neurons

Neurons

“The brain evolves further than any other organ. Beginning as the simplest sort of connecting center for the nerves, it elaborates into a surpassingly complex structure, with many levels of activity, and untold trillions of possible circuits”

– Wendell J.S. Krieg (from Functional Neuroanatomy, 1942)


Brain intelligence neurons

Brain & Intelligence - Neurons

  • Current models postulate that intelligence and complexity are the result of the properties of neurons and how they are connected.

  • Not only the number of neurons but physiological properties of neurons are also relevant: channels, cable properties, and the type of synapses.

There are billions of neurons in our brains, but what are neurons? Just cells. The brain has no knowledge until connections are made between neurons. All that we know, all that we are, comes from the way our neurons are connected.

– Tim Berners-Lee (from Weaving The Web: the original design and ultimate destiny of the world wide web by its inventor, 1999)


Synapses

Synapses

“The human brain is estimated to have about a hundred billion nerve cells, two million miles of axons, and a million billion synapses, making it the most complex structure, natural or artificial on earth”

-- Tim Green, Stephen F. Heinemann and Jim F. Gusella

(from a paper in Neuron, vol. 420, page 427, 1998)


Functional area of brain

Functional Area of Brain


Brain principles

Brain Principles

  • Contralaterality

    • The brain is divided into two mirror-image halves (hemispheres) when viewed from above.

  • The receptive and control centers for one side of the body are located in the opposite hemisphere of the brain.

  • Hemispheric Specification

    • Each hemisphere specializes in different manners of processing information and maintains different abilities.

    • The percentage of each hemisphere used varies by individual.


  • Left right brain

    Left & Right Brain

    Source: http://painting.about.com/library/blpaint/blrightbraintable.htm


    Left right brain cont d

    Left & Right Brain Cont’d

    Source: http://painting.about.com/library/blpaint/blrightbraintable.htm


    Intelligence

    Intelligence

    • Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and adapt to the surrounding environment. Some well-known intelligence theories are:

    • Spearman’s Monarchic Theory of Intelligence

      • General factor (g) present in all intelligences

      • g is the ability to see relationships between things and manipulate these relationships (this is required for problem solving)

      • Different problems require different abilities to solve them

      • Based on correlations

    • Cattell’s Fluid Intelligence/Crystalized Intelligence

      • Thought g was made up of two intelligences

      • Fluid Intelligence (the ability to reason and use intelligence; it declines at age 20)

      • Crystalized Intelligence (acquired skills and knowledge from past problem solving and application in specific domains; it increases with age)

    • Gardiner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

      • Eight different types of intelligences

      • People have varying levels of skills/intelligences

    Source: http://comp.uark.edu/~todegar/PSYC2003/intelligence.html


    Gardiner s multiple intelligences

    Gardiner’s Multiple Intelligences

    Source: http://www.gigglepotz.com/mi8.htm


    Knowledge

    Knowledge

    “Knowledge is a gigantic and ever-growing sphere in space and time, made up of millions of interconnecting, crisscrossing pathways”

    -- James Burke


    Learning

    Learning

    • Learning is a process by which we acquire new knowledge

    • Learning occurs by creation of neurons and associations between existing neurons.

    • If you stop learning your overall mental capacity and performance will decline. This is because of the weakening and eventual loss of brain networks

    • Over varying periods of time you’ll notice a gradual but steady decrease in your mental agility if you do not nourish and enhance these networks

    “Whenever you read a book or have a conversation, the experience causes physical changes in your brain. It’s a little frightening to think that every time you walk away from an encounter, your brain has been altered, sometimes permanently.”

    -- E. Roy John (from Mechanisms of Memory, 1967)


    Attention

    Attention

    “Attention is the spotlight that our brains use to identify stimuli within the context of time and space to select what is relevant and to ignore what is irrelevant”

    • Attention is a Limited Mental Resource

      • Neurons fatigue in 3-5 min. of sustained activity

      • Recover, but become inefficient in a few cycles

    • Brain tunes off when only factual information is provided to it

      • Key to stay focused is to stimulate different parts of the brain

      • Critical thinking spreads neuronal load across the brain


    The cocktail party effect

    “The Cocktail Party Effect”

    • In a classroom or any public situation (i.e. a cocktail party), it is important to filter out the important and non-important information.

    • Filtering or Selecting

      • Mental process of eliminating distractions or unwanted messages

    • Differences between sight and hearing

      • Sight selection can be focused with eye movement

      • Hearing selection is more cognitive


    Information processing model

    Information Processing Model

    Long-Term

    Memory

    Attention

    Stimulus Information

    Sensory

    Memory

    Short-Term

    Working

    Memory

    Response

    Revised information processing model adapted from Neisser (1976).

    Source: Mark H. Ashcraft, (2002) Cognition


    Memory

    Memory

    • We are our memories

    • It is the process by which we retain knowledge over time

      • Episodic Memory

      • Semantic Memory

    • Memory is established in multiple stages

      • Short Term

      • Long Term

    • Memory is not perfect

    “Memory is the most important function of the brain; without it life would be a blank. Our knowledge is all based on memory. Every thought, every action, our very conception of personal identity, is based on memory… Without memory, all experience would be useless.”

    -- Edridge-Green, 1900


    The magical number 7

    The Magical Number 7

    • Problem

      • Large amounts of sensory information can be experienced

      • Large amounts of information can be stored long term

      • Transfer of information between sensor to long term memory imposes “severe limitations on the amount of information that we are able to receive, process and remember”

    • Basically, the limit of information that can be processed easily into short term memory is 7 plus or minus 2.

    “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information”

    -- George Miller. (1956)


    Improving memory

    Improving Memory

    What do you do when:

    • You are introduced to someone new?

      • Recycle the name for a few seconds, or

      • Use it in conversation and try to find a mnemonic connection

    • You are reading text?

      • Process words at a simple level of understanding, or

      • Search for connections and relationships that will make the material more manageable


    Brain exercise

    Brain Exercise

    “You know you’ve got to exercise your brain just like your muscles”

    -- Will Rogers

    “The more you use your brain, the more brain you will have to use”

    -- George A. Dorsey


    Sleep and learning

    Sleep and Learning

    • Research has shown that:

      • Learning a new skill and then sleeping will lead to better performance3

      • What is learned when awake is replayed and rehearsed when asleep2

      • Quality of sleep matters2

      • At least 6 hours of sleep improves performance2

    • It is better to study and get a good night’s sleep before an exam than to cram the whole night!

    “Sleep affords the opportunity, within certain limits, for the brain to act of itself, and dreams are the result”

    -- Edward Clarke (from Vision: A Study of False Sight, 1878)

    1http://www.apa.org/monitor/oct01/sleeponit.html

    2http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/07/02/health/main514038.shtml


    Can learning be enhanced

    Can Learning be Enhanced?

    • Key to increasing your mental abilities is to increase your cognitive skills.

      • Cognition refers to your ability to attend, identify and act.

      • It also refers to thoughts, moods, inclination, decisions, and actions

      • It includes alertness, concentration, speed, learning, memory, problem solving, creativity and mental endurance.


    Thinking styles

    Thinking Styles

    • Every thinking style has its strengths and its weaknesses. The first step in using your strengths is understanding and accepting them. Stop thinking that you are different or think differently. You are what you are and you think in your own style.

    Source: http://sern.ucalgary.ca/courses/seng/693/W98/alang/minor.html


    Cognition critical thinking

    Cognition: Critical Thinking?

    • One demonstrated way to increase cognitive skills is to use a collection of tools and techniques that can be classified under the rubric critical thinking

    • These tools were developed by philosophers and thinkers over the last three thousand years

    • Business leaders do not relate well to these tools


    Critical thinking1

    Critical Thinking

    • We propose to introduce a Rosetta Stone for Critical Thinking which will be more orthogonal to the managerial mindset

    Classical Critical Thinking

    Bloom’s

    Taxonomy

    Applied Critical Thinking

    • Syllogisms

    • Truth Table

    • Chain Arguments

    • Inductive Reasoning

    • Deductive Reasoning

    • Cognitive

    • Affective

    • Psychomotor

    • Experimentation

    • Reasoning

    • Communication


    Blooms taxonomy

    Blooms Taxonomy?


    Critical thinking2

    Critical Thinking

    Why is critical thinking so important?

    Entrepreneur

    Asking the Right Questions

    It can help

    you become a visionary

    Critical Intellectual Traits

    It can help you succeed in important relationships

    Basic Learning Skills

    It can help you in your business studies

    Marketing, Finance, Information Systems, etc.

    Employee


    Critical thinking basic learning skills

    Critical ThinkingBasicLearning Skills

    Bloom’s Taxonomy

    • Cognitive Domain: deals with the development of ascending levels of intellectual abilities and skills.

    • Affective Domain: describes levels of the internalization process of the learners’ interests, attitudes, values, appreciations and behavior.

    • Motor Skills Domain: Deals with physical activity requiring coordination.


    Critical thinking basic learning skills1

    Critical ThinkingBasicLearning Skills

    Bloom’s Taxonomy: The Cognitive Domain

    • Knowledge: I can define it

    • Comprehension: I understand it

    • Application: I have used it

    • Analysis: I know how each part works

    • Synthesis: I can adapt it to other uses

    • Evaluation: I know when to use it


    Critical thinking basic learning skills bloom s taxonomy the cognitive domain

    Critical ThinkingBasicLearning SkillsBloom’s Taxonomy:The Cognitive Domain

    • Knowledge

      • It is rote learning ranging from the recall of specific facts to knowledge of conventions and theories…a rich vocabulary

    • Comprehension

      • Encompasses meaningful integrated learning. At this level, the learner has made the material part of his/her own frame of reference…ones own words

    • Application

      • Application means that the person can employ the idea, theory, practice, etc.

    • Analysis

      • Analytical skills enable the individual to discern unstated assumptions

    • Synthesis

      • At this level the individual is able to adapt his/her knowledge to other uses

    • Evaluation

      • Making judgments about the value or worth of something


    Critical thinking basic learning skills bloom s taxonomy the cognitive domain1

    Critical ThinkingBasicLearning SkillsBloom’s Taxonomy:The Cognitive Domain

    In Finance: Net Present Value

    • Knowledge: I have heard the term before. Isn’t that a method for ranking investment proposals.

    • Comprehension: The Net Present Value is equal to the present value of future returns, discounted at the marginal cost of capital, minus the present value of the cost of the investment.

    • Application : I used it recently to help make a decision concerning two investment proposals.

    • Analysis: The equation consists of several factors: the net cash flows, the marginal cost of capital, the initial cost of the project, and the project’s expected life.

    • Synthesis: I believe that this method can also be used as part of a method to determine the value of a firm’s intangible assets.

    • Evaluation: I know when to use NPV and when to use the IRR method


    Critical thinking bloom s taxonomy action verbs

    Critical ThinkingBloom’s Taxonomy & Action Verbs

    Action Verbs for Active Learning

    Evaluation

    Judge

    Appraise

    Rate

    Value

    Revise

    Estimate

    Assess

    Select

    Critique

    Synthesis

    Compose

    Plan

    Design

    Propose

    Arrange

    Assemble

    Prepare

    Collect

    Create

    Set up

    Organize

    Analysis

    Analyze

    Compare

    Diagram

    Experiment

    Differentiate

    Test

    Inspect

    Debate

    Question

    Relate

    Examine

    Distinguish

    Between

    Calculate

    Application

    Translate

    Interpret

    Apply

    Employ

    Use

    Demonstrate

    Dramatize

    Practice

    Illustrate

    Operate

    Sketch

    Comprehension

    Restate

    Discuss

    Describe

    Recognize

    Explain

    Tell

    Express

    Identify

    Report

    Knowledge

    Know

    Define

    Memorize

    Repeat

    List

    Recall


    Critical thinking basic learning skills2

    Critical ThinkingBasic Learning Skills

    Activities for Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in TQM

    • Knowledge Level:

      List or record terms related to TQM

      List three functions of your job that relate to other departments in the organization

      Define the various acronyms associated with TQM (e.g., SPC, CQI)

    • Comprehension Level:

      Discuss the advantages of TQM with coworkers

      Identify three departments that are customers of your department

      Review the major objective achieved in each training session

      In a role-play, tell what you have learned in this session to your immediate supervisor

    • Application Level:

      Demonstrate how four of the analysis tools could be used to locate quality problems in one

      activity of your work

      Dramatize how you would facilitate a meeting to introduce concepts of TQM to your

      department


    Critical thinking basic learning skills3

    Critical ThinkingBasic Learning Skills

    Activities for Using Bloom’s Taxonomy in TQM

    • Analysis Level:

      Diagram a process flow chart of the activities for a task in your work

      Differentiate those processes in your task environment that can be improved with TQM from

      those where TQM cannot be applied

      Examine the present departmental activities and determine which one currently use TQM

    • Synthesis Level:

      Prepare an article for the company newsletter describing TQM training

      Design a proposal for policy changes reflecting TQM to be presented to top executives

      Collect and compile data from department activities that support implementation of TQM

    • Evaluation:

      Critique a present training program and revise it to suit the needs of your organization

      Estimate a budget that would be necessary to implement TQM changes for your department.

      Rate the leadership in your department as to its readiness to implement TQM


    Critical thinking c an help you succeed in important relationships

    Critical ThinkingCan Help You Succeed in Important Relationships

    Critical Intellectual Traits and the Affective Domain

    • Receiving: Getting to 50%

    • Responding: Seeing the Value

    • Valuing: Understanding the Value

    • Organization: Comparing Values & Making Sense

    • Characterization: Practice & Consistency


    Critical thinking c an help you succeed in important relationships1

    Critical ThinkingCan Help You Succeed in Important Relationships

    Critical Intellectual Traits

    • Humility: Having a consciousness of the limits of ones knowledge. We should not claim to know more than we know. It implies the lack of pretentiousness or conceit.

    • Courage: This requires that individuals challenge what they learn rather than accept it at face value. This implies the need to look more deeply into various viewpoints that run counter to those that we hold. Willing to learn, to change, to unlearn, but to have the courage of right founded convictions.

    • Empathy: Recognizing the need to put oneself in the place of others. It requires a consciousness of our egocentric tendencies to identify truth with our perception of previous experience and beliefs.

    • Integrity: One must apply the same standards when looking at opposing points of view as when looking at their own arguments. Honestly admitting errors in ones thought and actions.

    • Perseverance: Recognizing the need to employ intellectual standards in spiteof the difficulties and obstacles this may present.The recognition that it may take time to make sense of confusing situations and to develop a necessary deeper understanding or insight.


    Critical thinking c an help you succeed in important relationships2

    Critical ThinkingCan Help You Succeed in Important Relationships

    To be effective in business it is essential that individuals and organizations focus on two primary objectives.

    Improve Organizational Effectiveness:

    What business should we be in?

    Improve Organizational Efficiency:

    Who are we in business with, and what must we do in order to gain a competitive advantage?


    Critical thinking

    Critical ThinkingCan Help You Succeed in Important RelationshipsThe Importance of Trust in Ensuring Efficiency & Effectiveness

    Efficiency

    “Trust should be viewed as an important component of social capital because

    low trust cultures incur a higher cost of doing business than do high trust

    cultures. Low trust cultures are simply less efficient.”

    Francis Fukuyama: Trust:The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity

    Effectiveness

    “If everyone cheated, trust would not exist. Every party to every transaction

    would be suspicious of everyone else and in such a system, people would

    spend valuable time energy and resources on protection and retaliation. In

    such a system, there would be no incentive to take risks and innovate.”

    Magda Ratajski:Vital Speeches


    Critical thinking the importance of trust

    Critical ThinkingThe Importance of Trust

    All ethical systems are designed to ensure trust, and with trust, the

    cooperation and collaboration necessary to ensure prosperity and survival.

    • The Ten Commandments

    • The Bill of Rights

    • The Hippocratic Oath, etc.


    Critical thinking the importance of trust1

    Critical ThinkingThe Importance of Trust

    An ethical system is a set of rules that helps guide behavior. Ethical systems

    exist along a continuum ranging from those that focus on the ends

    (teleological), and those that focus on the means (deontological). They differ

    on the basis of:

    • The extent to which they focus on the individual or on the broader society

    • The extent to which complete and accurate information is shared

    • The extent to which rules that guide behavior are universally practiced

    • The extent to which duty determines behavior

      These four elements can be described as: inclusiveness, truthtelling,

      consistency and discipline. These are then the values that help ensure that

      people share knowledge with their colleagues and build upon one another’s

      ideas.


    Critical thinking

    The Importance of TrustInclusiveness“We must all hang together or assuredly, we will all hang separately”Benjamin Franklin July 4, 1776

    Why is inclusiveness important?

    Cross Functional Teams

    How do you know whether your organization practices inclusiveness?

    How many of the following stakeholders are identified in your company credo?

    Policy Holders, Managers, Suppliers, Customers, Employees, etc.

    In how many broad areas are employees allowed to participate?

    Setting goals, Making decisions, Solving problems, Making changes, etc.

    How can you ensure inclusiveness?

    Empower, Distribute responsibility


    The importance of trust inclusiveness

    The Importance of TrustInclusiveness

    “ In matters of morality we are not judges about others, but nature

    has given us the right to form judgements about others. She has

    ordained that we should judge ourselves in accordance with

    judgements that others form about us. The man who turns a deaf ear

    to other people’s opinions of him is base and reprehensible.”

    From The Lectures of Immanuel Kant


    The importance of trust inclusiveness1

    The Importance of TrustInclusiveness

    Johnson and Johnson Company Credo

    “We believe our first responsibility is to doctors, nurses and patients,

    to mothers, and all others who use our products and services.

    We are responsible to our employees, the men and women who work

    with us throughout the world.

    We are responsible to the communities in which we live and work,

    and to the world community as well. Our final responsibility is to our

    stockholders.” [Bowie, 1987]


    The importance of trust inclusiveness2

    The Importance of TrustInclusiveness

    Examples

    • Jethro’s Advice to Moses

    • Johnson and Johnson Company Credo

    • Wayne Huizenga and Waste Management

    • Bob Gebo at AT&T

    • Steven Covey’s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People


    The importance of trust inclusiveness3

    The Importance of TrustInclusiveness

    Practices

    • Distribute responsibility:

      • Process ownership at Chaparal steel has paid of handsomely. Workers at Chaparal require 1.6 hours to produce one ton of steel whereas the industry average is 4.4 hours per ton.

    • Seek first to understand:

      • Dell’s Direct Model means that they spend more time with the customer before they actually make the product. This way hey know exactly what the customer wants.

    • Encourage collaboration:

      • Honda and Rover benefited from their collaboration. Rover learned how to improve quality and productivity, and Honda learned how to develop and market a luxury car, the Acura Legend.


    The importance of trust truthtelling

    The Importance of TrustTruthtelling

    “Truth is the secret of eloquence and virtue, the basis of moral authority; it is the highest summit of art and life.”

    Henri Frederic Amiel, 1883

    Why is truthtelling important?

    Individual and Team Learning

    How do you know whether your organization practices truthtelling?

    A falsehood ceases to be a falsehood when it is understood on all sides

    that the truth is not expected to be spoken.

    How can you ensure truthtelling

    Admit your mistakes quickly and publicly.


    The importance of trust truthtelling1

    The Importance of TrustTruthtelling

    “ If a man spreads false news though he does no wrong to anyone in

    particular, he offends against mankind because if such practices were

    universal, mans desire for knowledge would be frustrated. For apart

    from speculation there are only two ways I can increase my fund of

    knowledge, by experience, and by what other people tell me.”

    From the Lectures of Immanuel Kant


    The importance of trust truthtelling2

    The Importance of TrustTruthtelling

    Examples

    • Nixon and Clinton

    • Donald Douglas of McDonald Douglas

    • Scott Cook of Intuit

    • Edmund Schweitzer of SEL, etc.


    The importance of trust truthtelling3

    The Importance of TrustTruthtelling

    Practices

    • Admit your mistakes quickly and publicly:

      • Tom’s of Main produced a deodorant that actually made body odor worse. Tom’s recalled their product and issued an apology. It cost $400,000 or 30% of their projected profits for the year. No loss of market share, in fact it went up.

    • Humility is the best guarantor of truth and learning:

      • Self disclosure is important to open communication and learning. When students approached strangers at an airport and tried to communicate with them, the more personal the messages they communicated, the more revealing the comments.

    • Do not give the impression of stealth or impropriety:

      • Gerber baby Foods and the blue ceramic chip.


    The importance of trust consistency

    The Importance of TrustConsistency

    “The secret of success is constancy of purpose”

    Benjamin Disraeli, 1872

    Why is consistency so important?

    Behavior characterizes individuals as well as organizations.

    How do you know whether your organization practices consistency?

    Measure the number of complaints or law suits brought against the firm.

    How can you ensure consistency?

    Set incredibly high standards.


    The importance of trust consistency1

    The Importance of TrustConsistency

    “The first rule was never to accept anything as true unless I recognized it to

    be evidently such: that is carefully avoid all precipitation and pre-judgement

    and to include nothing in my calculations unless it presented itself so clearly

    and distinctly in my mind that there was no reason to doubt it.

    The second was to divide each of the difficulties which I encountered into as

    many parts as possible, and as might be required for easier solution.

    The third part was to think in an orderly fashion when concerned with the

    search for truth, beginning with the things that were simplest and easiest to

    understand and gradually by degrees reaching toward more complex

    knowledge even treating as though ordered materials which were not so.

    The last was both in the process of searching and in reviewing when in

    difficulties, always to make enumerations so complete and reviews so general

    that I would be certain that nothing was omitted.”

    Rene DesCartes


    The importance of trust consistency2

    The Importance of TrustConsistency

    Examples

    • Wal-Mart

    • Hubble Telescope

    • MacDonalds, etc.


    The importance of trust consistency3

    The Importance of TrustConsistency

    Practices

    • Choose a task worthy of your efforts:

      • The one thing successful companies have in common is a worthy purpose. This is the company’s reason for being. For SONY it is “To have people experience the joy of advancing and applying technology for the benefit of the public.

    • Believe in yourself:

      • Drucker states that knowledge workers must believe in themselves. This way they take serious, the need to keep learning, to constantly seek out new knowledge.

    • Set your standards high:

      • General Electric, Monsanto Intel, etc. employ stretch goals. One company set a goal of reducing hazardous wastes by 5%. Once achieved everyone slacked off. Monsanto set a goal of zero emissions. While scientifically impossible this stretch goal helped Monsanto striving for the best.


    The importance of trust discipline

    The Importance of TrustDiscipline

    “Discipline is the soul of an army, it makes small numbers

    formidable, procures success to the weak and esteem to all”

    George Washington, 1759

    Why is discipline important?

    It ensures the other three values

    How do you know whether your organization practices discipline?

    Does your organization make public their performance toward their goals?

    How can you ensure discipline?

    Establish goals and make them explicit


    The importance of trust discipline1

    The Importance of TrustDiscipline

    “ Men are qualified for civil liberty in exact proportion to their disposition to

    put moral chains upon their own appetites; in proportion as their love of

    justice is above rapacity; in proportion as their soundness and sobriety of

    understanding is above their vanity and presumption; as they are disposed

    to listen to the counsels of the wise and good in preference to the flattery of

    knaves. Society cannot exist unless a controlling power upon will and appetite

    be placed somewhere and the less there is within, the more there must be

    without. It is ordained in the eternal constitution of things that men of

    intemperate minds cannot be free, their passions forge their fetters.’

    Edmond Burke


    The importance of trust discipline2

    The Importance of TrustDiscipline

    Examples

    • Harvard Graduates

    • Jack Welch

    • The United States Marines, etc.


    The importance of trust discipline3

    The Importance of TrustDiscipline

    Practices

    • Know your limits:

      • Young companies must learn not to promise the market place too much. Brian Farrell, CEO of THQ, a video game seller complained that if you grow at 15%, the first thing Wall street asks, is if you can grow at 25%.

    • Establish goals and make them explicit:

      • Accountability should be seen as a tool that inspires a company and its employees to to learn and work harder rather than a form of organizational policing.

    • Make your goals and performance public:

      • In 1989, Dupont Chairman Edward Woolard publicly stated that they would reduce toxic air emissions by 60%, carcinogens by 90% and hazardous wastes by 35%. They then announced that they cut these emissions and wastes by 605, 75% and 46% respectively. The moral—Measure what you do and report the results publicly.


    Critical thinking3

    Critical Thinking

    Asking the Right Questions

    • Who

    • What

    • Where

    • When

    • Why

    • How


    Critical thinking4

    Critical Thinking

    Asking the Right Questions

    Managing Conflict

    • Who has conflict?

    • What kind of conflict?

    • Where is the conflict

    • When is the conflict?

    • Why is there conflict?

    • How can conflict be resolved?


    Critical thinking5

    Critical Thinking

    Asking the Right Questions

    Managing Conflict

    • Who has conflict?

      • Workers, husbands and wives

    • What kind of conflict?

      • Emotional, substantive

    • Where is the conflict?

      • On the job, at home

    • When is there conflict?

      • Working together, making a major purpose

    • Why is there conflict?

      • Differences in values

    • How can conflict be resolved?

      • Or in what ways can persons who interact with one another better achieve their mutual objectives


    Critical thinking6

    Critical Thinking

    Asking The Right Questions

    Cutting Grass

    • Who has grass?

    • What kind of grass?

    • Where is the grass?

    • When does it need cutting?

    • Why cut the grass?

    • How can the grass be cut?


    Critical thinking7

    Critical Thinking

    Asking The Right Questions

    Cutting Grass

    • Who has grass?

      • Homeowners, municipalities

    • What kind of grass?

      • All kinds

    • Where is the grass?

      • In yards, parks, golf courses

    • When does it need cutting?

      • When its over three inches high

    • Why cut the grass?

      • To control weeds, for a nicer looking yard

    • How can the grass be cut?

      • Or, in what ways can grass be made to stop growing after it reaches a height of three inches?


    Critical thinking asking the right questions

    Critical ThinkingAsking the Right Questions

    What Firm

    Must Do

    What Firm

    Must Know

    Strategy Gap

    Knowledge Gap

    What Firm

    Knows

    What Firm

    Can Do


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