Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab
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Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Vocab:. Prehistory: the period of time before people began to write. Archaeology: The study of things that earlier people left behind. Artifact: A human-made object, especially from long ago; artifacts include art, clothing, pottery, tools and weapons.

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Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Vocab:

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Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Vocab:

Prehistory: the period of time before people began to write.

Archaeology: The study of things that earlier people left behind.

Artifact: A human-made object, especially from long ago; artifacts include art, clothing, pottery, tools and weapons.

Fossil: The remains, such as bones, of humans and animals that were once alive.

Theory: A proposed explanation about life.

Hominid: Any member of different species with humanlike features.

Paleolithic Era: The earliest period of the Stone Age.

Migrate: To move from one place to another.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 the distant past

Chapter 1 Lesson 1The Distant Past

What to Know:

How do people today learn about the distant past?


You should be able to

You should be able to:

  • Describe what is known about the early humans through archaeological studies.

  • Tell about the achievements of scientists who have studied the ancient past.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 notes

Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Notes

  • The period of time before people began to write is called Prehistory.

  • One way we learn about ancient times is through Scientific Study.

  • The study of things that earlier people left behind is called Archaeology.

  • Archaeologists study the remains of ancient campsites, shelters and buildings.

  • The also learn from artifacts, or objects made by people, such as art, clothing, pottery, tools and weapons.

  • Some scientists study remains, like bones, called Fossils.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

  • By comparing artifacts and fossils from different periods in history, scientists can develop theories about life in the past.

    QUESTION: What information can artifacts and fossils provide?


Answer

Answer:

  • The information artifacts and fossils are able to provide center around how early humans might have lived and what they might have looked like.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

Excavating Sites:

  • Excavation Sites are areas where archaeologists dig up artifacts and fossils.

  • Sites include:

    -inside caves

    -near rivers

    -under present day villages or cities.

    Some sites are found after years of careful study or by chance!


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

Sites are divided into a grid of squares and each part of the plot is dug up separately to be able to keep track of where an article or fossil is found.

-to removed dirt from around an artifact/fossil, scientists use shovels, brushes or small picks.

-they are careful not to break or damage findings

-clean, label and pack findings before sending them off to labs where scientists will perform tests on them to determine their age.

-one test is called Radiocarbon Dating which can tell how much carbon remains in an object that was once alive.

(when something dies, its radioactive carbons begins to decrease.) RAC Dating can only go back 40,000 years.


Question

Question:

How are sites of artifacts and fossils found?


Answer1

Answer:

  • Sites of artifacts and fossils are found by careful research or by luck/chance!


Excavation activity

Excavation Activity

  • You will be given a Rice Krispie Treat to use as your excavation site.

  • With a plastic knife, create a 3x3 grid on your treat site.

  • With a toothpick start excavation by examining the first quadrant. Keep track of your findings on your activity sheet.


African beginnings

African Beginnings:

  • Hominids are humans/species with humanlike characteristics. The earliest have been found in Africa suggesting human life may have started there.

  • Australopithecines are one of the earliest hominid groups which may have lived in Africa between 1-4.5 million years ago.


Comparison chart

Comparison Chart


Donald johanson

Donald Johanson

  • Johanson found a 20 year old, 4 foot tall female that became known as Lucy in 1974. She walked on two legs.


The leakeys

The Leakeys

  • Louis, Mary and Richard Leakey were archaeologists who found fossils of early hominids.

  • In 1959, they excavated a site in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Africa.

  • Mary discovered Zinjanthropus boisei or Zinj. An Australopithecine who lived 1.7 million years ago.

  • This made Mary, an artist who illustrated other archaeological findings, a respected archaeologist herself.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

Mary Douglas Nicol was born on February 6, 1913. Her father, Erskine Nicol, was a popular landscape artist, and Mary spent much of her childhood in Europe, especially in the Dordogne and at Les Eyzies, a region rich in prehistoric art and archaeological sites, topics in which Mary became interested. Her idyllic life was shattered in 1926 when her father, to whom she was exceptionally close, died, and Mary and her mother moved back to London. Attempts to give her some conventional education failed when the rebellious girl was expelled from two Catholic schools. In 1930 she began auditing archaeology and geology university courses, and she worked on archaeological digs and as a scientific illustrator. She met Louis Leakey in 1933 at Cambridge, and soon began an affair with him. On his next expedition to Africa, she arranged to meet him there. They were married in late 1936. She returned to Kenya with Louis the following year, and in the subsequent decades worked in many excavations. An important discovery of Mary's was the first fossil skull of the extinct Miocene primate Proconsul. Mary primarily worked as an archeologist rather than a physical anthropologist.

  • In 1959, Mary found the "Zinjanthropus" (Australopithecus boisei) fossil which was to propel the Leakey family to worldwide fame. From the mid-1960's, she lived almost full time at Olduvai Gorge, often alone, while Louis worked on other projects. She and Louis grew apart, partly because of his womanizing and partly because Louis was dividing his time between many other projects. In 1974, she commenced excavations at nearby Laetoli, and in 1976 her team found huge numbers of animal footprints that had been fossilized in ash deposited by a volcano. In 1978 they found what would be her greatest discovery, adjacent footprint tracks that had been left by two bipedal hominids.

  • In 1983, Mary retired from active fieldwork, moving to Nairobi from Olduvai Gorge, where she had lived for nearly 20 years. She died in 1996 at the age of eighty-three. Although it was Louis Leakey who was the more charismatic and well-known figure, Mary became a famous scientist in her own right. Although she had never earned a degree, by the end of her life she had received many honorary degrees and other awards. It is generally agreed that Mary was a better scientist, far more meticulous and cautious than the often reckless Louis. Her prodigious achievements in archaeology make her a giant in the field.

  • References

  • Leakey M.D. (1984): Disclosing the past. New York: Doubleday. (Mary Leakey's autobiography)

  • Morell V. (1995): Ancestral passions: the Leakey family and the quest for humankind's beginnings. New York: Simon & Schuster.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

Lucy

  • How Lucy got her name:

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKYjpetqYWI

  • Comparing Lucy to Humans of today:

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xT8Np0gI1dI


A conversation with leakey and johanson

A Conversation with Leakey and Johanson

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pBZ8o-lmAsg


Early hominids

Early Hominids

  • The Homo Habilis, meaning “Handy Person,” lived in Africa 2.5 million years ago. (see tools above right)

  • The Paleolithic Era, Old Stone Age, began about 2.5 million years ago and ended 10,000 years ago.

  • Homo Erectus, meaning “Upright Person,” lived 1.9 million years ago in Kenya, Africa. (see photo bottom right)


Comparison chart1

Comparison Chart


Question1

Question:

  • In what ways did Homo Erectus use fire?


Answer2

Answer:

  • Homo Erectus used fire for:

  • Cooking

  • Keeping animals away

  • warmth


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

ARDI

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b0ROl_Rw2g8#t=46


The discovery of australopithecus sediba

The Discovery of Australopithecus sediba

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5YEiJVQdI-Q


Review chapter 1 lesson 1 the distant past

Review Chapter 1 Lesson 1The Distant Past

Can you answer:

How do people today learn about the distant past?


You should be able to1

You should be able to:

  • Describe what is known about the early humans through archaeological studies.

  • Tell about the achievements of scientists who have studied the ancient past.


Chapter 1 lesson 2 vocab

Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Vocab:

Humankind: The human race

Technology: The proper application of knowledge to develop new tools or ways to make and do things.

Adapt: To change to fit the surroundings.

Environment: surroundings

Extinct: No longer found on Earth

Hunters and Gatherers: Members of Homo sapiens who spent many hours a day searching for food.

Consequence: a result of an action.


Chapter 1 lesson 2

Chapter 1 Lesson 2

Why did Early Humans move from Place to Place?

You will be able to:

-describe how early humans found food and shelter.

-describe how early humans populated major regions of the world.


Add to comparison chart

Add to Comparison Chart:


Question2

Question:

  • How was the Physical Development of early humans superior to that of early hominids?


Answer3

Answer:

  • Early humans had more skill for hands and larger, rounder skulls.


Adapting to the environment

Adapting to the Environment:

  • Early humans lived in groups of related family members, totalling around 30 people.

  • -Family included grandparents, parents, aunts, uncles, children…

  • -adapted to new surroundings.


Shelters

Shelters:

  • Shelters included caves and rock ledges or shelters out of dried mud, tree branches, etc.


Food gatherers

Food-Gatherers

  • Women gathered wild grasses, nuts, seeds…

  • -dug up plant roots and picked fruit from bushes and trees to share with all members.


Food hunters

Food-Hunters

  • Men hunted wild animals that are now extinct such as:

  • Sloths

  • Saber-toothed cats

  • Wooly mammoths

  • Mastadons

  • They also hunted deer and bison, caught turtles, birds, reptiles and rodents.

  • (they used them for food and bones for tools).


Question3

Question:

  • How did early humans adapt to the environment?


Answer4

Answer:

  • The early humans adapted to their environment by living in a variety of shelters, gathering different foods and hunting for animals to use as food and materials.


On the move

On the Move

  • Early humans were Hunters and Gatherers.

  • Spent many hours a day looking for food.

  • Always on the move which meant they had no permanent housing.

  • When the food left, they left also.

  • -ate plants within a day’s walking distance.


Question4

Question:

  • Why were Hunters and Gatherers always on the move?


Answer5

Answer:

  • Hunters and Gatherers were always on the move because they moved as the weather or their food supply changed.


Moving across continents

Moving across Continents

  • During the Ice Ages, glaciers formed and huge sheets of ice covered the Earth.

  • So much water was frozen that the ocean level dropped 300 feet causing bridges of dry land to be visible (seen) between continents.


Early people moved onto other continents

Early People moved onto other Continents…


Add to comparison chart1

Add to Comparison Chart:


Neandrathal cro magnon

Neandrathal/Cro-Magnon


Describe the last ice age

Describe the last Ice Age:


Map and globe skills

Map and Globe Skills

Latitude: the distance north or south of the Equator.

Longitude: the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.

Prime Meridian: the line that runs North and South through Greenwich, England (near London)


Chapter 1 lesson 3

Chapter 1 Lesson 3

  • What you should know:

  • Why did humans around the world develop different ways of life?

  • -identify the locations where early people were living during the later years of the last Ice Age.

  • -describe the ways in which these people adapted to a variety of environments.


Vocab

Vocab:

  • Nomad: A person with no settled home.

  • Society: A group of people living and working under a set of rules and traditions.

  • Role: The part a person plays in society; responsibility.

  • Culture: A way of life shared by members of a group.


Around the world the end of the ice age

Around the World- The end of the Ice Age

  • The Ice Age ended 12,000 years ago.

  • -temperatures rose causing glaciers to melt.

  • Oceans rose and covered land bridges and coastlines.

  • -grasslands grew/forests rose up.

  • Large Ice Age animals died/smaller animals became more plentiful.

  • A lot of human communities sprang up around the world.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

  • Nomads followed the migration of animals and seasons of plants.

  • Some returned to the same places each year.

  • Others began to live in camps where food was available throughout the entire year (instead of following animals)

  • Societies formed where people lived and worked together setting up rules, roles and traditions.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

  • As humans started communicating, cultures formed.

  • Culture is a way of life shared by a group.


Africa

Africa

  • After the Ice Age, climate changed.

  • The Sahara Desert was once grassy allowing early Africans to live in the area.

  • Others roamed the savannahs, grassy plains, where there was a lot of wild game.

  • Others moved towards water where they could fish along the Nile River with twine nets and bone hooks.

  • Nelson’s Bay Cave-a camp was set up along the coast of southern Africa. Great for hunting/fishing.


The bow and arrow

The Bow and Arrow

  • The creation of the Bow and Arrow helped people hunt with more accuracy!

  • Allowed them to shoot from a safer distance.


Question5

QUESTION:

  • What details support the idea that the Nile River area was a good place to live?


Answer6

Answer:

  • The Nile River area provided plenty of food, allowing people to set up permanent camps.

  • Animals came to the River for water,

  • Fish lived in the water.

  • Lots of food!


Europe

EUROPE

  • Once plains, Europe had now become saturated with forests after the Ice Age.

  • People hunted for game in the forests and used tools made out of wood- ex) bows and arrows.

  • People living along the Baltic Sea created fishing spears, harpoons, nets and traps for fishing.

  • 12,000 years ago, people started crossing the Mediterranean Sea.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

  • New plants were available to eat and they started finding ways to store their food.

  • More food meant bigger populations.

  • Bigger populations meant permanent housing and less moving around.

  • Scientists have found remains of simple huts with fireplaces in them in France.

  • Cultures grew!


Question6

Question:

  • What fishing tools did people living along the Baltic Sea Develop?


Answer7

Answer:

  • People along the Baltic Sea developed fishing spears, harpoons, nets and traps!


Asia and the pacific

Asia and the Pacific

  • People living along the Mediterranean Sea spent their summers in the cooler hills and winters in rock shelters and caves near the lakes.

  • Temperatures warmed and people started moving to higher ground where there was better soil for plants. This let them stay there longer to live in the same place.


One of the first settlements

One of the First Settlements

  • Abu Hureya was situated along the Euphrates River in Syria. There were wild plants and animals such as gazelle, which they hunted.

  • 300 people lived here in shelters with reed roofs built partially underground.

  • http://www.syriatoday.ca/arch-abu-hureyra.htm

  • http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/05/06/ancient-natufian-farmers-in-syria-at-abu-hurerya/


Japan and china

Japan and China

  • People lived in forests using bamboo and wood to make tools.

  • First known clay pots were used in Japan and were used for carrying water and storing food.

  • People in Asia used bamboo and stone to make tools.

  • People in SE Asia probably settled SW Pacific Islands and Australia, both which are now somewhat isolated from the rest of the world.


Question7

Question:

  • What were the first clay pots used for?


Answer8

Answer:

  • The first clay pots were used for carrying water and storing food.


North america

North America

  • Clovis people were one of the first early cultures in North America.

  • They made spear points called Clovis points which were mounted on wooden shafts. These have been found all over North America.

  • They were used to kill large animals such as mammoths and bison for food, tools, clothing and tents.

  • The name Clovis comes from the town of Clovis, New Mexico, where they were first found.


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

  • As larger Ice Age animals began to decrease, people turned to hunting smaller animals such as deer and small bison, using smaller spear points and tools.

  • People in desert areas camped in rock shelters/caves and hunted desert animals like rabbits and gathered plants.

  • People who lived in eastern forests used trees for nuts, sap for food, branches for clubs and wooden spears, bark for shelters.


La brea tar pits in southern california

La Brea Tar Pits in Southern California


Mexico

Mexico

  • People living in Mexico lived in large camps when there was a lot of food and broke into smaller camps when food was scarce.


Question8

Question:

  • What are some ways in which people living in eastern North America used trees.


Answer9

Answer:

  • People living in eastern North America used nuts and sap for food, branches for clubs and wooden spears and bark for shelter.


South america

South America

  • People migrated from North America to South America. They migrated to:

  • -cold ocean coasts at southern tip of SA

  • -high up in the cold Andes Mountains

  • -dense rain forests surrounding the Amazon River.


Monte verde

Monte Verde

  • Located in southern Chile

  • Early people here lived in wooden framed houses covered with animal skins.

  • -each house had a fireplace for cooking.

  • Ate different kinds of plants including wild potatoes and hunted small animals including camel species and mastodons (both extinct)


Chapter 1 lesson 1 vocab

Peru

  • Early people caught seafood year round.

  • They caught thousands of anchovies with baskets.

  • Also relied on plant food.

  • Fishing settlements began to grow at the mouths of the coastal rivers.


Brazil

Brazil

  • Early settlements have been found in caves located in the rain forest.

  • Lived on plants for survival.

  • Also Brazil nuts and palm seeds.


Question9

Question:

  • What kinds of environments did early people adapt to in South America?


Answer10

Answer:

  • Ocean coasts, mountains and rain forests were the kinds of environments early people adapted to in South America.


Chapter review

Chapter Review

  • Identify the term that correctly matches each definition…

  • 1. change to fit new surroundingsprehistory

  • 2. ways to make and do things archaeology

  • 3. a person who has no settled home technology

  • 4. the period before people began to adapt

  • write. Nomad

  • 5. the study of things that earlier people

  • left behind.


Vocab continued

Vocab continued

  • 1.A human-made object, especially

  • from long ago; artifacts

  • include art, clothing, pottery, tools migrate

  • and weapons. fossil

  • 2.The remains, such as bones, of artifact

  • humans and animals that were once alive. theory

  • 3. A proposed explanation about life. hominid

  • 4.Any member of different species with Paleolithic Era

  • humanlike features.

  • 5. The earliest period of the Stone Age.

  • 6. To move from one place to another.


Vocab continued1

Vocab continued

1. The human race

2. surroundings

3. No longer found on Earth Culture

4. Members of Homo sapiens who Consequence

spent many hours a day searching environment

for food. humankind

5. a result of an action. extinct

6. A group of people living and working society

under a set of rules and traditions. role

7. The part a person plays in society; Hunters/Gatherers

responsibility.

8. A way of life shared by members of

a group.


Put these early humans in order from oldest to newest

Put these early humans in order from oldest to newest…

  • 1. ______________a. Homo sapiens

  • 2. ______________b. Australopithecines

  • 3. ______________c. Cro-Magnon

  • 4. ______________d. Homo habilis

  • 5. ______________e. other Australopithecines

  • 6. ______________f. Neandrathals

  • 7. ______________g. Homo erectis


Put these areas in order from first inhabited to last inhabited

Put these areas in order from first inhabited to last inhabited…

  • 1.______________ Asia/Pacific

  • 2. _____________ North America

  • 3. _____________ Africa

  • 4. _____________ Europe

  • 5.______________ South America

  • 6. _____________


2 minutes to show what you know

2 minutes to show what you know!


Living in forests vs living in grasslands vs living along coastline river

Living in Forests vs. Living in grasslands vs. living along coastline/river


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