The a merican revolution
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The A merican Revolution. The Road to War. Important Vocabulary. Blockade- to use warships to prevent other ships from entering or leaving a harbor Earthworks- a wall made of dirt or stone used for protection during a battle Intolerable- unacceptable; unbearable; so bad you can’t stand it

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The A merican Revolution

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The a merican revolution

The American Revolution

The Road to War

Important vocabulary

Important Vocabulary

  • Blockade- to use warships to prevent other ships from entering or leaving a harbor

  • Earthworks- a wall made of dirt or stone used for protection during a battle

  • Intolerable- unacceptable; unbearable; so bad you can’t stand it

  • Mercenary- a soldier who fights in a war for a foreign nation in return for money

  • Minutemen- Patriot soldiers who could be ready to fight in a minute’s notice

  • Monopoly- the complete control of product or service

  • Olive branch- an ancient symbol of peace

  • Petition- a signed request made to an official person or organization

  • Quarter- to provide or pay for housing at no cost to another person

The trouble with tea

The Trouble with Tea

  • In 1770, Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts EXCEPT for the tea tax.

  • Parliament then gave a tea monopoly to the East India Company

    • East India Company was Britain’s chief tea producer

    • Britain allowed East India Company to charge less for their tea than any of the colonial tea merchants

    • This was BAD news for the colonists because all of their customers bought from the East India Company and they were put out of business

    • This caused some colonists to boycott tea

Boycott tea patriots

Boycott Tea, Patriots!

  • In Pennsylvania, colonists didn’t allow British ships carrying tea to enter their ports

  • In Massachusetts, colonists didn’t want tea ships to dock either

    • Governor Thomas Hutchinson allowed them to

The sons of liberty

The Sons of Liberty

  • A group of Patriots who wanted the colonies to be free from England and King George III

  • Included:

    • John Adams

    • Samuel Adams

    • John Hancock

    • Benedict Arnold

    • Paul Revere

    • Joseph Warren

    • Patrick Henry

The sons of liberty have a plan

The Sons of Liberty have a Plan!

  • Like the Patriots who gathered in the Stamp Act Congress, the Patriots know they must ACT against the tea tax and monopoly inflicted on them by the British

  • During one of their secret meetings, they decide to make a statement to the British Parliament

    • This is not a written declaration like John Dickinson suggested at the Stamp Act Congress

    • This was more violent and much more famous!

The boston tea party

The Boston Tea Party

  • The night of December 16, 1773, the Boston Tea Party happened

  • The Sons of Liberty planned to get rid of the British tea

  • They hired local Patriot men, in a lower social and economic standing than them to

    • Dress up as Mohawk Indians

    • Board a British tea ship

    • Break open 342 chests of tea

    • Dump the tea into the harbor

Coercive acts intolerable acts

Coercive Acts/ Intolerable Acts

  • British Parliament was furious over the Patriot’s actions

  • They imposed the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, a new series of laws punishing the colonists

  • The colonists called them intolerable because they were so bad the colonists couldn’t stand it!

Boston port bill

Boston Port Bill

  • Passed in 1774

  • Closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea (it was worth approximately $1 million in today’s money)

  • The British navy blockaded the harbor with their warships to keep any ships from entering or leaving

Massachusetts government act

Massachusetts Government Act

  • Passed in 1774

  • Banned the Massachusetts government from making laws

  • Banned town meetings not approved or authorized by the governor

Quartering act

Quartering Act

  • Required the colonists to quarter the British soldiers

  • This meant they had to:

    • Feed

    • Provide shelter

Colonists are sick and tired of the british

Colonists are sick and tired of the British!

  • The colonists hate the Intolerable Acts

  • They are starting to get worried that the British will do anything (and everything) to get them to obey

  • The colonists know they need a plan for how to respond to the British

  • So, they meet again

First continental congress

First Continental Congress

  • September 1774 at Philadelphia’s Carpenters’ Hall

  • 56 delegates had different ideas:

    • Some wanted to break away from Britain

    • Some wanted to find a way to get along better with Britain

    • Some wanted to make a compromise between these ideas

  • Congress agreed to compromise

    • They wrote a petition of their rights

    • Said that only the colonial government could make laws on taxes that the colonists would pay

    • Gave Parliament a deadline of May 10, 1775 to respond or the colonists would meet again

    • They agreed to stop trade with Britain in the meantime

  • Patrick Henry suggested everyone prepare for war and said: “I know not what course others may take: but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”

Lexington and concord

Lexington and Concord

  • In Massachusetts, colonists formed special militia units made of soldiers called “Minutemen”

  • In April 1775, General Thomas Gage (British general) heard:

    • That Samuel Adams and John Hancock (Sons of Liberty Patriots) were meeting in the village of Lexington

    • That the Minutemen were hiding weapons in Concord

  • Gage ordered 700 soldiers to:

    • Go to Lexington and Concord

    • Arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock

    • Find the weapons and take them

The a merican revolution

  • Paul Revere (Patriot) heard the news and rode to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams

  • Paul Revere made the trip with William Dawes and Samuel Prescott

  • They got to Concord, warned John Hancock and Samuel Adams and the Minutemen

  • When the British got to Lexington on April 19, 1775, they were ready and waiting for the British soldiers

  • Minutemen shot at the British and they fought back

    • 8 Minutemen were killed and several others were wounded

  • The British soldiers moved on to Concord to find the weapons they heard were stored there

    • The weapons had been moved

  • When the British soldiers were marching back to Boston, the Minutemen fired at them and killed 73 and wounded 174

  • Only 93 Minutemen were killed or wounded

  • The Minutemen won this battle

The shot heard around the world

“The Shot Heard Around the World”

  • The fighting at Lexington and Concord was the first battle in the American Revolutionary War

The second continental congress

The Second Continental Congress

  • May 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia

  • There were representatives from every colony except Georgia

  • Again, the representatives have different ideas about how to proceed

    • Some want to declare war with Britain

    • Some want to make peace

  • Congress decided by June to start preparing for war

Continental army

Continental Army

  • Congress decided the colonies needed a Continental Army of full-time, regular soldiers AND part-time militia from each colony

  • Congress asked George Washington to lead the Continental Army

  • Each colony was asked to contribute money to pay for guns, bullets, food and uniforms

  • Congress printed their own paper money (called continentals) and used this to pay the soldiers

Battle of bunker hill

Battle of Bunker Hill

  • Near Boston

  • June 17,1775

  • Colonists built earthworks near Boston to defend themselves against a battle with the British soldiers

  • The British soldiers were only safe in Boston and could only leave by sea

  • Colonists began to build earthworks on Breed’s Hill (across the Charles River from Boston)

  • General Thomas Gage (British) ordered his soldiers to open fire on the colonists

  • Gage sent General William Howe (British) with 2,400 soldiers to capture Breed’s Hill

The a merican revolution

  • British and colonists fought at Breed’s Hill

    • Colonists drove the British down the hill twice before running out of gun powder

  • British won the battle, but more than 1,000 of the 2,400 soldiers were killed or wounded

  • Only about 350 colonists were killed or wounded

  • Colonists were proud of what they had done, even though they lost

  • British learned that it wouldn’t be so easy to beat the colonists

  • The Battle of Bunker Hill actually happened at Breed’s Hill (it was misnamed!)

Olive branch petition vs proclamation of rebellion

Olive Branch Petition vs. Proclamation of Rebellion

  • July 5, 1775

  • Second Continental Congress met again and sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III

    • They wanted a peaceful ending to the fighting

  • King George III responded with the Proclamation of Rebellion

    • Promised to use every measure to crush the rebellion and bring the traitors to justice

  • The two documents crossed paths on their way and each was written before the other one had been read

The armies got s tronger

The Armies Got Stronger

  • King George III hired German mercenaries to enlarge his army

    • Most of the Germans were Hessians (from the Hesse region of Germany)

    • Professional soldiers who fought for other countries in return for money

    • Also enlisted the help of the Native Americans and took advantage of their anger towards to the colonists

  • Second Continental Congress created a Navy and reached out to some Native American tribes as well

  • The colonists started to see themselves as Americans, and not just colonists

What happens now

What happens now???

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