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The A merican Revolution. The Road to War. Important Vocabulary. Blockade- to use warships to prevent other ships from entering or leaving a harbor Earthworks- a wall made of dirt or stone used for protection during a battle Intolerable- unacceptable; unbearable; so bad you can’t stand it

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important vocabulary
Important Vocabulary
  • Blockade- to use warships to prevent other ships from entering or leaving a harbor
  • Earthworks- a wall made of dirt or stone used for protection during a battle
  • Intolerable- unacceptable; unbearable; so bad you can’t stand it
  • Mercenary- a soldier who fights in a war for a foreign nation in return for money
  • Minutemen- Patriot soldiers who could be ready to fight in a minute’s notice
  • Monopoly- the complete control of product or service
  • Olive branch- an ancient symbol of peace
  • Petition- a signed request made to an official person or organization
  • Quarter- to provide or pay for housing at no cost to another person
the trouble with tea
The Trouble with Tea
  • In 1770, Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts EXCEPT for the tea tax.
  • Parliament then gave a tea monopoly to the East India Company
    • East India Company was Britain’s chief tea producer
    • Britain allowed East India Company to charge less for their tea than any of the colonial tea merchants
    • This was BAD news for the colonists because all of their customers bought from the East India Company and they were put out of business
    • This caused some colonists to boycott tea
boycott tea patriots
Boycott Tea, Patriots!
  • In Pennsylvania, colonists didn’t allow British ships carrying tea to enter their ports
  • In Massachusetts, colonists didn’t want tea ships to dock either
    • Governor Thomas Hutchinson allowed them to
the sons of liberty
The Sons of Liberty
  • A group of Patriots who wanted the colonies to be free from England and King George III
  • Included:
    • John Adams
    • Samuel Adams
    • John Hancock
    • Benedict Arnold
    • Paul Revere
    • Joseph Warren
    • Patrick Henry
the sons of liberty have a plan
The Sons of Liberty have a Plan!
  • Like the Patriots who gathered in the Stamp Act Congress, the Patriots know they must ACT against the tea tax and monopoly inflicted on them by the British
  • During one of their secret meetings, they decide to make a statement to the British Parliament
    • This is not a written declaration like John Dickinson suggested at the Stamp Act Congress
    • This was more violent and much more famous!
the boston tea party
The Boston Tea Party
  • The night of December 16, 1773, the Boston Tea Party happened
  • The Sons of Liberty planned to get rid of the British tea
  • They hired local Patriot men, in a lower social and economic standing than them to
    • Dress up as Mohawk Indians
    • Board a British tea ship
    • Break open 342 chests of tea
    • Dump the tea into the harbor
coercive acts intolerable acts
Coercive Acts/ Intolerable Acts
  • British Parliament was furious over the Patriot’s actions
  • They imposed the Coercive Acts, also known as the Intolerable Acts, a new series of laws punishing the colonists
  • The colonists called them intolerable because they were so bad the colonists couldn’t stand it!
boston port bill
Boston Port Bill
  • Passed in 1774
  • Closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea (it was worth approximately $1 million in today’s money)
  • The British navy blockaded the harbor with their warships to keep any ships from entering or leaving
massachusetts government act
Massachusetts Government Act
  • Passed in 1774
  • Banned the Massachusetts government from making laws
  • Banned town meetings not approved or authorized by the governor
quartering act
Quartering Act
  • Required the colonists to quarter the British soldiers
  • This meant they had to:
    • Feed
    • Provide shelter
colonists are sick and tired of the british
Colonists are sick and tired of the British!
  • The colonists hate the Intolerable Acts
  • They are starting to get worried that the British will do anything (and everything) to get them to obey
  • The colonists know they need a plan for how to respond to the British
  • So, they meet again
first continental congress
First Continental Congress
  • September 1774 at Philadelphia’s Carpenters’ Hall
  • 56 delegates had different ideas:
    • Some wanted to break away from Britain
    • Some wanted to find a way to get along better with Britain
    • Some wanted to make a compromise between these ideas
  • Congress agreed to compromise
    • They wrote a petition of their rights
    • Said that only the colonial government could make laws on taxes that the colonists would pay
    • Gave Parliament a deadline of May 10, 1775 to respond or the colonists would meet again
    • They agreed to stop trade with Britain in the meantime
  • Patrick Henry suggested everyone prepare for war and said: “I know not what course others may take: but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”
lexington and concord
Lexington and Concord
  • In Massachusetts, colonists formed special militia units made of soldiers called “Minutemen”
  • In April 1775, General Thomas Gage (British general) heard:
    • That Samuel Adams and John Hancock (Sons of Liberty Patriots) were meeting in the village of Lexington
    • That the Minutemen were hiding weapons in Concord
  • Gage ordered 700 soldiers to:
    • Go to Lexington and Concord
    • Arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock
    • Find the weapons and take them

Paul Revere (Patriot) heard the news and rode to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams

  • Paul Revere made the trip with William Dawes and Samuel Prescott
  • They got to Concord, warned John Hancock and Samuel Adams and the Minutemen
  • When the British got to Lexington on April 19, 1775, they were ready and waiting for the British soldiers
  • Minutemen shot at the British and they fought back
    • 8 Minutemen were killed and several others were wounded
  • The British soldiers moved on to Concord to find the weapons they heard were stored there
    • The weapons had been moved
  • When the British soldiers were marching back to Boston, the Minutemen fired at them and killed 73 and wounded 174
  • Only 93 Minutemen were killed or wounded
  • The Minutemen won this battle
the shot heard around the world
“The Shot Heard Around the World”
  • The fighting at Lexington and Concord was the first battle in the American Revolutionary War
the second continental congress
The Second Continental Congress
  • May 10, 1775, the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia
  • There were representatives from every colony except Georgia
  • Again, the representatives have different ideas about how to proceed
    • Some want to declare war with Britain
    • Some want to make peace
  • Congress decided by June to start preparing for war
continental army
Continental Army
  • Congress decided the colonies needed a Continental Army of full-time, regular soldiers AND part-time militia from each colony
  • Congress asked George Washington to lead the Continental Army
  • Each colony was asked to contribute money to pay for guns, bullets, food and uniforms
  • Congress printed their own paper money (called continentals) and used this to pay the soldiers
battle of bunker hill
Battle of Bunker Hill
  • Near Boston
  • June 17,1775
  • Colonists built earthworks near Boston to defend themselves against a battle with the British soldiers
  • The British soldiers were only safe in Boston and could only leave by sea
  • Colonists began to build earthworks on Breed’s Hill (across the Charles River from Boston)
  • General Thomas Gage (British) ordered his soldiers to open fire on the colonists
  • Gage sent General William Howe (British) with 2,400 soldiers to capture Breed’s Hill

British and colonists fought at Breed’s Hill

    • Colonists drove the British down the hill twice before running out of gun powder
  • British won the battle, but more than 1,000 of the 2,400 soldiers were killed or wounded
  • Only about 350 colonists were killed or wounded
  • Colonists were proud of what they had done, even though they lost
  • British learned that it wouldn’t be so easy to beat the colonists
  • The Battle of Bunker Hill actually happened at Breed’s Hill (it was misnamed!)
olive branch petition vs proclamation of rebellion
Olive Branch Petition vs. Proclamation of Rebellion
  • July 5, 1775
  • Second Continental Congress met again and sent the Olive Branch Petition to King George III
    • They wanted a peaceful ending to the fighting
  • King George III responded with the Proclamation of Rebellion
    • Promised to use every measure to crush the rebellion and bring the traitors to justice
  • The two documents crossed paths on their way and each was written before the other one had been read
the armies got s tronger
The Armies Got Stronger
  • King George III hired German mercenaries to enlarge his army
    • Most of the Germans were Hessians (from the Hesse region of Germany)
    • Professional soldiers who fought for other countries in return for money
    • Also enlisted the help of the Native Americans and took advantage of their anger towards to the colonists
  • Second Continental Congress created a Navy and reached out to some Native American tribes as well
  • The colonists started to see themselves as Americans, and not just colonists