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Recursion. Chapter 11. Chapter Contents. Recursive Definitions Base and General Cases of Recursion What is a Recursive Algorithm Recursive Functions Using Recursive Functions. Recursive Definitions.

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### Recursion

Chapter 11

Chapter Contents

- Recursive Definitions
- Base and General Cases of Recursion
- What is a Recursive Algorithm
- Recursive Functions
- Using Recursive Functions

Recursive Definitions

- Definition:The process of solving a problem by reducing it to smaller versions of itself is called recursion.
- Example:Consider the concept of factorials 0! = 1 1! = 1 2! = 1 * 2 3! = 1 * 2 * 3 . . . n! = 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 * … * (n – 1) * n

General Case

Base and General Cases of Recursion- Every recursive definition must have one (or more) base cases.
- The general case must eventually reduce to a base case.
- The base case stops the recursion

Recursive Functions

- This would be the recursive function for the recursive factorial algorithm

int fact (int num)

{ if (num == 0) return 1; else return num * fact (num – 1);}

Recursive Functions

- Execution ofa call to therecursive factorial functioncout << fact(4);

Recursive Functions

- Think of a recursive function as having infinitely many copies of itself.
- Every call to a recursive function has
- its own code and
- its own set of parameters and
- its own local variables.

- After completing a particular recursive call,
- Control goes back to the calling environment
- That is, the previous call.

Recursive Functions

- The current (recursive) call must execute completely before the control goes back to the previous call.
- The execution in the previous call begins from the point immediately following the recursive call.
- A recursive function in which the last statement executed is the recursive call is called a tail recursive function.
- The function fact is an example of a tail recursive function.

Using Recursive Functions

- Consider the task of finding the largest element of an array
- To find the largest element in list[a]...list[b]
- First find the largest element in list[a+1]...list[b]
- Then compare this largest element with list[a].

- Note the source code

Using Recursive Functions

- Execution ofthe recursivefunctionlargest()

Using Recursive Functions

- Example of Fibonacci number
- a denotes the first Fibonacci number
- b is the second Fibonacci number
- n is the nth Fibonacci number:

Using Recursive Functions

- Note Fibonacci source code
- Note diagram ofrecursiveFibonacci function call
- Very inefficient

Recursion or Iteration?

- Iterative control structures use a looping structure to repeat a set of statements.
- while,
- for,
- or do...while,

- There are usually two ways to solve a particular problem
- iteration and
- recursion.

- The obvious question …

Which method is better?

Recursion or Iteration?

- Another key factor in determining the best solution method is efficiency.
- Recall that whenever a function is called,
- Memory space for its formal parameters and local variables is allocated.
- When the function terminates, that memory space is then deallocated.

- We also know that every (recursive) call has its own set of parameters and (automatic) local variables.

Recursion or Iteration?

- Overhead involved with recursion
- Memory space
- Time of execution

- Today’s computers
- fast
- inexpensive memory

- Therefore, the execution of a recursion function is not noticeable.

Recursion or Iteration?

- Rule of thumb:If an iterative solution is
- more obvious
- easier to understand than a recursive solution
Use the iterative solution, which would be more efficient.

- When the recursive solution is more obvious or easier to construct … use recursion

Fibonacci numbers

Tower of Hanoi