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Morphology Cont. Functions pg 136-7 Clark. Derivational Morphemes that alter the meaning In English prefixes or suffixes Inflectional Grammatical relationship/information In English all suffixes. Inflectional of Derivational?. The {- e r} in “bigger” The {-ment} in “judgment”

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Functions pg 136 7 clark
Functions pg 136-7 Clark

  • Derivational

    • Morphemes that alter the meaning

    • In English prefixes or suffixes

  • Inflectional

    • Grammatical relationship/information

    • In English all suffixes


Inflectional of derivational
Inflectional of Derivational?

  • The {-er} in “bigger”

  • The {-ment} in “judgment”

  • The {un-} in “unkind”

  • The {-ing} in “walking”

  • The {-er} in “golfer”

  • The {-en} in “darken”


Hierarchy
Hierarchy

  • Words are formed in steps

  • When more than one affix = more than one step

  • Represent hierarchical structure with “trees”

    • Shows steps


Trees
Trees

  • Un.think.able

    • Think  thinkable  unthinkable

      A

      A

      un think able


Ambiguity
Ambiguity

  • What does unlockable mean?

    • Meaning 1: capable of being unlocked

    • Meaning 2: can’t be locked

  • {un-1} A  A (‘not’)

    • Unhappy, unthinkable

  • {un-2} V  V (reverse the action of V)

    • Untie, undo, unscrew


A closer look at ambiguity
A closer look at ambiguity

A A

V A

un- lock -able un- lock -able

can be unlocked cannot be locked


Allomorphy
Allomorphy

  • English Plural

  • Written two ways

    • “cats”, “dogs”, “bicycles”, “wars”

    • “bushes”, “walruses”, “watches”

  • Pronounced three ways

    • [s]

    • [z]

    • [´z]


Allomorphy1
Allomorphy

  • “cows”

  • “flamingos”

  • “toads”

  • “partridges”

  • “snakes”

  • “ostriches”

  • “giraffes”

  • “apes”


Allomorphy2
Allomorphy

  • [s]

  • [z]

  • [´z]


Allomorphy3
Allomorphy

/z/

{-z} {-s} {´z}

  • z  s / voiceless consonant __

  • z  ´z / frication __

  • z  z / elsewhere


How to do a morphology problem
How to do a morphology problem

  • Examine your data

    • Don’t be confused by unfamiliar symbols. You are looking for patterns in form and meaning.

  • Choose two similar items

    • Maybe they differ by only one or two symbols

  • Check the glosses for those items

    • The glosses for those similar items will differ slightly (perhaps in tense or subject).

  • Make a hypothesis

    • Hypothesize as to the difference in form and its relationship to the difference in meaning.

  • Test your hypothesis

    • Use other data to confirm or reject your hypothesis


Kanuri a language spoken in western africa
Kanuri (a language spoken in Western Africa)

gana “small”

kura “big”

kurugu “long”

numkura “bigness”

numgana “smallness”

numkurugu “length”

First, examine your data…


Choose two similar items
Choose two similar items

gana

kura

kurugu

numkura

numgana

numkurugu


Check the glosses for those items
Check the glosses for those items

gana

kura“big”

kurugu

numkura“bigness”

numgana

numkurugu

Can you make a hypothesis based on this pair of words?


Test your hypothesis
Test your hypothesis

gana “small”

kura “big”

kurugu “long”

numkura “bigness”

numgana “smallness”

numkurugu “length”



Hanunoo a language spoken in the philippines
Hanunoo(a language spoken in the Philippines)

usa “one”

usahi “make it one!”

duwa “two”

duwahi “make it two!”

upat “four”

upati “make it four!”

unum “six”

unumi “make it six!”


Choose two similar items1
Choose two similar items

‘usa

‘usahi

duwa

duwahi

‘upat

‘upati

‘unum

‘unumi


Check the glosses for those items1
Check the glosses for those items

‘usa

‘usahi

duwa “two”

duwahi “make it two!”

‘upat

‘upati

‘unum

‘unumi

Can you make a hypothesis??


Test your hypothesis1
Test your hypothesis

‘usa “one”

‘usahi “make it one!”

duwa “two”

duwahi “make it two!”

‘upat “four”

‘upati “make it four!”

‘unum “six”

‘unumi “make it six!”


Make a new hypothesis and test it
Make a new hypothesis and test it

‘usa “one”

‘usahi “make it one!”

duwa “two”

duwahi “make it two!”

‘upat “four”

‘upati “make it four!”

‘unum “six”

‘unumi “make it six!”



Arabic
Arabic

fasara “she/he discovered”

fassara “she/he explained”

thakara “she/he remembered”

thakkara “she/he reminded”

bala’a “she/he reached”

balla’a “she/he brought”


Conclusion2
Conclusion

  • Infix

    • reduplicate C2

    • “causative” action is shifted from doer to receiver


Homework
Homework

  • Due Monday 9/27


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