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Morphology Cont. Functions pg 136-7 Clark. Derivational Morphemes that alter the meaning In English prefixes or suffixes Inflectional Grammatical relationship/information In English all suffixes. Inflectional of Derivational?. The {- e r} in “bigger” The {-ment} in “judgment”

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Morphology cont

Morphology Cont


Functions pg 136 7 clark

Functions pg 136-7 Clark

  • Derivational

    • Morphemes that alter the meaning

    • In English prefixes or suffixes

  • Inflectional

    • Grammatical relationship/information

    • In English all suffixes


Inflectional of derivational

Inflectional of Derivational?

  • The {-er} in “bigger”

  • The {-ment} in “judgment”

  • The {un-} in “unkind”

  • The {-ing} in “walking”

  • The {-er} in “golfer”

  • The {-en} in “darken”


Hierarchy

Hierarchy

  • Words are formed in steps

  • When more than one affix = more than one step

  • Represent hierarchical structure with “trees”

    • Shows steps


Trees

Trees

  • Un.think.able

    • Think  thinkable  unthinkable

      A

      A

      unthinkable


Ambiguity

Ambiguity

  • What does unlockable mean?

    • Meaning 1: capable of being unlocked

    • Meaning 2: can’t be locked

  • {un-1} A  A (‘not’)

    • Unhappy, unthinkable

  • {un-2} V  V (reverse the action of V)

    • Untie, undo, unscrew


A closer look at ambiguity

A closer look at ambiguity

A A

V A

un- lock -able un- lock -able

can be unlocked cannot be locked


Allomorphy

Allomorphy

  • English Plural

  • Written two ways

    • “cats”, “dogs”, “bicycles”, “wars”

    • “bushes”, “walruses”, “watches”

  • Pronounced three ways

    • [s]

    • [z]

    • [´z]


Allomorphy1

Allomorphy

  • “cows”

  • “flamingos”

  • “toads”

  • “partridges”

  • “snakes”

  • “ostriches”

  • “giraffes”

  • “apes”


Allomorphy2

Allomorphy

  • [s]

  • [z]

  • [´z]


Allomorphy3

Allomorphy

/z/

{-z}{-s} {´z}

  • z  s / voiceless consonant __

  • z  ´z / frication __

  • z  z / elsewhere


How to do a morphology problem

How to do a morphology problem

  • Examine your data

    • Don’t be confused by unfamiliar symbols. You are looking for patterns in form and meaning.

  • Choose two similar items

    • Maybe they differ by only one or two symbols

  • Check the glosses for those items

    • The glosses for those similar items will differ slightly (perhaps in tense or subject).

  • Make a hypothesis

    • Hypothesize as to the difference in form and its relationship to the difference in meaning.

  • Test your hypothesis

    • Use other data to confirm or reject your hypothesis


Kanuri a language spoken in western africa

Kanuri (a language spoken in Western Africa)

gana“small”

kura“big”

kurugu“long”

numkura“bigness”

numgana“smallness”

numkurugu“length”

First, examine your data…


Choose two similar items

Choose two similar items

gana

kura

kurugu

numkura

numgana

numkurugu


Check the glosses for those items

Check the glosses for those items

gana

kura“big”

kurugu

numkura“bigness”

numgana

numkurugu

Can you make a hypothesis based on this pair of words?


Test your hypothesis

Test your hypothesis

gana“small”

kura“big”

kurugu“long”

numkura“bigness”

numgana“smallness”

numkurugu“length”


Conclusion

Conclusion


Hanunoo a language spoken in the philippines

Hanunoo(a language spoken in the Philippines)

usa“one”

usahi“make it one!”

duwa“two”

duwahi“make it two!”

upat“four”

upati“make it four!”

unum“six”

unumi“make it six!”


Choose two similar items1

Choose two similar items

‘usa

‘usahi

duwa

duwahi

‘upat

‘upati

‘unum

‘unumi


Check the glosses for those items1

Check the glosses for those items

‘usa

‘usahi

duwa“two”

duwahi“make it two!”

‘upat

‘upati

‘unum

‘unumi

Can you make a hypothesis??


Test your hypothesis1

Test your hypothesis

‘usa“one”

‘usahi“make it one!”

duwa“two”

duwahi“make it two!”

‘upat“four”

‘upati“make it four!”

‘unum“six”

‘unumi“make it six!”


Make a new hypothesis and test it

Make a new hypothesis and test it

‘usa“one”

‘usahi“make it one!”

duwa“two”

duwahi“make it two!”

‘upat“four”

‘upati“make it four!”

‘unum“six”

‘unumi“make it six!”


Conclusion1

Conclusion


Arabic

Arabic

fasara“she/he discovered”

fassara“she/he explained”

thakara“she/he remembered”

thakkara“she/he reminded”

bala’a“she/he reached”

balla’a“she/he brought”


Conclusion2

Conclusion

  • Infix

    • reduplicate C2

    • “causative” action is shifted from doer to receiver


Homework

Homework

  • Due Monday 9/27


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