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# Morphology Cont - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Morphology Cont. Functions pg 136-7 Clark. Derivational Morphemes that alter the meaning In English prefixes or suffixes Inflectional Grammatical relationship/information In English all suffixes. Inflectional of Derivational?. The {- e r} in “bigger” The {-ment} in “judgment”

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### Morphology Cont

Functions pg 136-7 Clark

• Derivational

• Morphemes that alter the meaning

• In English prefixes or suffixes

• Inflectional

• Grammatical relationship/information

• In English all suffixes

• The {-er} in “bigger”

• The {-ment} in “judgment”

• The {un-} in “unkind”

• The {-ing} in “walking”

• The {-er} in “golfer”

• The {-en} in “darken”

• Words are formed in steps

• When more than one affix = more than one step

• Represent hierarchical structure with “trees”

• Shows steps

• Un.think.able

• Think  thinkable  unthinkable

A

A

un think able

• What does unlockable mean?

• Meaning 1: capable of being unlocked

• Meaning 2: can’t be locked

• {un-1} A  A (‘not’)

• Unhappy, unthinkable

• {un-2} V  V (reverse the action of V)

• Untie, undo, unscrew

A A

V A

un- lock -able un- lock -able

can be unlocked cannot be locked

• English Plural

• Written two ways

• “cats”, “dogs”, “bicycles”, “wars”

• “bushes”, “walruses”, “watches”

• Pronounced three ways

• [s]

• [z]

• [´z]

• “cows”

• “flamingos”

• “partridges”

• “snakes”

• “ostriches”

• “giraffes”

• “apes”

• [s]

• [z]

• [´z]

/z/

{-z} {-s} {´z}

• z  s / voiceless consonant __

• z  ´z / frication __

• z  z / elsewhere

• Don’t be confused by unfamiliar symbols. You are looking for patterns in form and meaning.

• Choose two similar items

• Maybe they differ by only one or two symbols

• Check the glosses for those items

• The glosses for those similar items will differ slightly (perhaps in tense or subject).

• Make a hypothesis

• Hypothesize as to the difference in form and its relationship to the difference in meaning.

• Use other data to confirm or reject your hypothesis

Kanuri (a language spoken in Western Africa)

gana “small”

kura “big”

kurugu “long”

numkura “bigness”

numgana “smallness”

numkurugu “length”

gana

kura

kurugu

numkura

numgana

numkurugu

gana

kura“big”

kurugu

numkura“bigness”

numgana

numkurugu

Can you make a hypothesis based on this pair of words?

gana “small”

kura “big”

kurugu “long”

numkura “bigness”

numgana “smallness”

numkurugu “length”

Hanunoo(a language spoken in the Philippines)

usa “one”

usahi “make it one!”

duwa “two”

duwahi “make it two!”

upat “four”

upati “make it four!”

unum “six”

unumi “make it six!”

‘usa

‘usahi

duwa

duwahi

‘upat

‘upati

‘unum

‘unumi

‘usa

‘usahi

duwa “two”

duwahi “make it two!”

‘upat

‘upati

‘unum

‘unumi

Can you make a hypothesis??

‘usa “one”

‘usahi “make it one!”

duwa “two”

duwahi “make it two!”

‘upat “four”

‘upati “make it four!”

‘unum “six”

‘unumi “make it six!”

‘usa “one”

‘usahi “make it one!”

duwa “two”

duwahi “make it two!”

‘upat “four”

‘upati “make it four!”

‘unum “six”

‘unumi “make it six!”

fasara “she/he discovered”

fassara “she/he explained”

thakara “she/he remembered”

thakkara “she/he reminded”

bala’a “she/he reached”

balla’a “she/he brought”

• Infix

• reduplicate C2

• “causative” action is shifted from doer to receiver

• Due Monday 9/27