Understanding diseases
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Understanding Diseases. Chapter 8 Lesson 1. Focus Question. What are pathogens and how do they react in my body?. Understanding Diseases. A communicable Disease is an illness caused by pathogens that can be passed from one person to another person, animal or object.

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Understanding Diseases

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Understanding diseases

Understanding Diseases

Chapter 8 Lesson 1


Focus question

Focus Question

What are pathogens and how do they react in my body?


Understanding diseases1

Understanding Diseases

  • A communicable Disease is an illness caused by pathogens that can be passed from one person to another person, animal or object.

  • A germ is something that causes disease.

    • A more official term for germ is PATHOGEN!

      • They are disease causing agents which could be single or multi-cellular.


Causes and spread of disease

Causes and Spread of Disease

  • Pathogens come in all different shapes and sizes:

    • Such as: bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickettsia, and viruses.

    • Not all Bacteria and Fungi are pathogens!

      • Some bacteria are beneficial and used in the digestion process.

      • Some Fungi are used as food (mushrooms)!


Focus question1

Focus Question

  • Name different diseases.


How are pathogen s spread

How are Pathogen’s Spread?

  • Direct Contact

    • Kissing, touching, sharing glasses or utensils, sexual activity, needle sharing.

  • Animal bites or scratches

  • Indirect contact

    • Doorknobs, table tops, faucet handles

  • Insect Stings or bites

  • Contaminated food or water

    • Food borne illnesses, etc


Wash your hands

Wash your Hands!!!

Soap or alcohol-based hand rub kills the flu virus. When water is

not available, alcohol-based hand rubs may be used. It’s especially

important to clean your hands:

• After wiping or blowing your nose or coughing or sneezing;

• After using the bathroom;

• After being in contact with or being near someone who is ill;

• After touching handrails, doorknobs, telephones or other

things handled by many people;

• Before and after eating or drinking;

• Before handling food, especially ready-to-eat foods like salads

and sandwiches; and

• After handling garbage or trash


The immune system

The Immune System

  • Made of cells, tissues, and organs that fight off pathogens.

    First line of defense:

    • Skin

    • Mucous Membranes

    • Tears

    • Saliva

    • Sweat

    • Stomach Acid


Once the pathogen s get in

Once the pathogen’s get in…


The immune system1

The Immune System


The immune system s specific response

This is the body’s third line of defense

Lymph plays an important part

It bathes cells and cleans them of foreign organisms.

Lymph nodes filter the lymph.

Lymph contains lymphocytes

B-Cells- make T cells

T-Cells- destroy infected cells

Killer Cells- kill pathogens

The Immune System’s Specific Response


The immune system s specific response1

The Immune System’s Specific Response

  • Antigens- substances that cause an immune reaction in the body.

  • Once B-Cells find antigens, they begin making antibodies.

    • Antibody- a protein in the blood that destroys a specific antigen.

  • Memory cells remember the specific antigen and they speed the production of more antibodies.

  • T-cells and Killer Cells destroy the antigens as well.


Specific parts of the immune system

Specific Parts of the Immune System

  • Lymph Nodes

    • Lymph carries captured antigens to lymph nodes where it is filtered out.

  • Thymus

    • Small gland on the upper chest that produces T-Cells

  • Spleen

    • Filters dangerous substances from the blood. Carries antigens to the spleen which prompts B-Cells to produce antibodies.

  • Bone Marrow

    • Bone Marrow produces lymphocytes

    • Immune System Quiz


Caring for your immune system

Caring for your Immune System

  • Get regular physical examinations

  • Visit a physician when you feel ill.

  • Follow directions on your medication.

  • Reduce Stress

  • Exercise Regularly.

  • Get 8 hours of sleep each night

  • Plan healthy meals

  • Avoid drugs and alcohol.


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