Europe prior to wwi including part i of the guns of august
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Europe prior to WWI-including part I of The Guns of August. Edward VII. First King of England in the 20th Century Died in 1910-his funeral opened The Guns of August Oldest son of Queen Victoria Married to Alexandra of Denmark Mostly peaceful reign (save the Boer Wars-in South Africa).

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Europe prior to wwi including part i of the guns of august

Europe prior to WWI-including part I of The Guns of August.


Edward vii

Edward VII

  • First King of England in the 20th Century

  • Died in 1910-his funeral opened The Guns of August

  • Oldest son of Queen Victoria

  • Married to Alexandra of Denmark

  • Mostly peaceful reign (save the Boer Wars-in South Africa).

  • Very focused on military and foreign affairs


Edward vii uncle to europe

Edward VII-Uncle to Europe

  • The German Emperor Wilhelm II-nephew

  • Tsar Nicholas II of Russia-nephew

  • Grand Duke Ernest Louis of Hesse-nephew

  • Duke Charles Edward of Saxe-Coburg-nephew

  • Queen Victoria Eugenia of Spain-neice

  • Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden-neice

  • Crown Princess Marie of Romania-neice

  • Crown Princess Sophia of Greece-neice

  • Empress Alexandra of Russia-neice

  • King Haakon VII of Norway was both his nephew by marriage and his son-in-law


Edward vii uncle to europe continued

Edward VII-Uncle to Europe Continued…

  • King George I of Greece-brother-in law

  • King Frederick VIII of Denmark-brother-in-law

  • King Albert I of Belgium-cousin

  • King Charles I and King Manuel II of Portugal-cousin

  • Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria-cousin

  • Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands-cousin

  • Prince Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick-cousin


Wilhelm ii german emperor king of prussia

Wilhelm II, German Emperor/King of Prussia

  • Ruled from 1888 to 1918

  • Forced Otto van Bismarck to resign as Chancellor and also got rid of his foreign policies.

  • Ultimate goal was to reclaim Germany’s “place in the sun”.


George v

George V

  • The “new” king of England

  • Ruled from 1910-1936

  • Collected stamps and smoked a lot

  • WWI took a toll on his health


Tsar nicholas ii

Tsar Nicholas II

  • Last emperor of Russia

  • Married to Alexandra, Queen Victoria’s granddaughter

  • Saw Germany as the main enemy-even though the Kaiser was his cousin

    • A series of telegrams were exchanged during the war: ”The Nicky-Willy telegrams”

  • Forced to abdicate throne in 1917


King i albert

King I Albert

  • Ruled Belgium from 1909-1934

  • Upheld neutrality during WWI, standing up to Germany’s ultimatum

  • Held up Germany’s “plan” by resisting and giving France time to make military preparations


Archduke franz ferdinand of the austro hungarian empire

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian Empire


Alfred von schlieffen author of the schlieffen plan

Alfred von Schlieffen-author of the Schlieffen Plan


Helmuth von moltke

Helmuth von Moltke

  • In charge with carrying out the Schlieffen Plan.

  • He believed that once started, the plan could not and should not be motified


Joseph joffre

Joseph Joffre

  • Commander in Chief of the French military during WWI.

  • In charge of defending France against the Schlieffen Plan.

  • Devised Plan 17, which contained no over-all objective and no explicit schedule for operations.


Franco prussian war

Franco-Prussian War

  • Waged from July 1870- Feb. 1871

  • Previously, Napoleon I had conquered German lands, in this battle, the roles would be reversed

  • This was a rapid and overwhelming victory for Prussia

  • This made a united German Empire possible and ended the Napoleonic Empire in France

  • Germany becomes a major European power and takes the French territory of Alsace-Lorraine


Entangling alliances

Entangling Alliances

  • Germany and France are bitter enemies

  • Germany is afraid of both Britain and Russia

  • Russia is weakened from it’s loss in the Russo-Japanese War

  • Britain is divided over the impending war and the loss in the Boer War.

  • Belgium is neutral-Britain has pledged alliance if Belgium is invaded

  • France is allied with Russia, but Russia had also been previously allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary


Entangling alliances continued

Entangling Alliances Continued

  • Italy enters into an alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungry, pledging neutrality

  • Serbia allies with Russia

  • Austria-Hungary and Germany are allied and would come to include the crumbling Ottoman Empire (whose land was very appealing to Austria)


The moroccan crisis

The Moroccan Crisis

  • Morocco was given to France by Britain in 1904.

  • Germany announces its support for Moroccan independence in 1905.

  • Britain supports France and war is avoided by an international conference in 1906.

  • France agreed to make Morocco a French protectorate.


The moroccan crisis ii

The Moroccan Crisis II

  • In 1911, Germany sent a warship to Morocco claiming that the French had violated international agreement.

  • Britain again defends France and Germany backs off in exchange for part of the French controlled Congo.


Crisis in the balkans

Crisis in the Balkans

  • In 1908, Austria-Hungary annexed the territory of Bosnia (which had formally been a Turkish province)

  • This threatened Serbia, which was also interested in this territory. War threatened between Serbia (allied with Russia) and Austria-Hungary (allied with Germany). War is avoided, but tensions are still high


The balkan wars of 1912 13

The Balkan Wars of 1912-13

  • The Balkan states, including Serbia, fought the Turks and drove them back to Constantinople.

  • The Balkans began to fight over the territory. Tensions increased again when Austria-Hungary forced Serbia to give up some of the lands gained.

  • On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the heir to the Austo-Hungarian empire) is assassinated in Sarajevo by the Serbian Nationalist group The Black Hand.


Europe prior to wwi including part i of the guns of august

  • The Tuchman quote that has to be repeated (p. 133 in my book)

  • “Europe was entering, Moltke wrote, the struggle that will decide the course of history for the next hundred years”.


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