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Cognitive Process. Higher mental process, such as perception memory, language, problem solving and abstract thinking Cognition Process of knowing Attending, remembering and reasoning Content of the process, such as concepts and memories. Cognitive Process. Cognitive psychology

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Cognitive Process

  • Higher mental process, such as perception memory, language, problem solving and abstract thinking

  • Cognition

    • Process of knowing

    • Attending, remembering and reasoning

    • Content of the process, such as concepts and memories


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Cognitive Process

  • Cognitive psychology

    • Study of higher mental processes

    • Including attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving and thinking


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Cognitive Process

  • Cognitive science

    • Interdisciplinary field study of the approach systems and processes that manipulate info


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Studying Cognition

  • FC Donders (1868)

    • Extra mental steps will often result in more time to perform a task

  • Serial process- two or more mental processes that are carried out in order, one after the other


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Studying Cognition

  • Parallel process

    • Two or more mental processes that are carried out simultaneously

    • Doing two things at once


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Studying Cognition

  • Controlled processes

    • Require attention

    • Difficult to do two at one time

  • Automatic processes

    • Does not require attention

    • Can be performed along with other task with out interferences


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Language Use

  • Language production

    • What people say sign and write as well as the process they go through to produce the messages

  • Audience design

    • Process of shaping a message depending on the audience for which it is intended


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Language Use

  • Cooperative principle

    • Paul Grice (1975)

    • Speak utterances appropriate to setting and meaning of ongoing conversation

  • Common ground

    • Herbbert Clark (1981)

    • Common knowledge

    • Community membership – in community

    • Linguistic copresence-earlier talk

    • Physical copresence-objects around


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Language Use

  • Spoonerism

    • Error in language

    • An exchange of the initial sounds of two or more words in a phrase or sentence

      • Ex. Messing up a tongue twister


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Language Use

  • Lexical

    • Lexicon or synonym for dictionary

  • Lexical ambiguity

    • Two meanings of word or sentence

    • I.e. ball – play with – go to


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Language Use

  • Understanding

    • Prepositions (begins with) on, under etc.

    • Inferences

      • Missing in or filled in on the basis of a sample of evidence or on the basis of prior beliefs and theories


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Language Use

  • Language / Culture

    • Whorf, Sapir (1976)

      • Language habits of community influence meaning of language

      • Linguistic relativity-differences in language structures will lead to cognitive differences


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Language Use

  • Linguistic determinism

    • Structure of language influences or determines the way native speakers perceive and reason about the world


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Visual Cognition

  • Studies show we use visual imagery due to time/length of answers to questions


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Problem Solving

  • Thinking that is directed toward solving specific problems and that move from an initial state to a goal by means of a set of mental operations


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Problem Solving

  • Reasoning

    • The process of thinking in which conclusions are drawn from a set of facts

    • Thinking directed toward a given goal or objective

  • Problem space

    • Thinking that is directed toward solving specific problems and that move from an initial state to a goal by means of a set of mental operations


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Problem Solving

  • Algorithm

    • Step-by-step procedure that always provides the right answer for a particular type of problem

  • Heuristics

    • Strategies, often used shortcuts

    • “rules of thumb”


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Problem Solving

  • Think-aloud protocols

    • Verbal reports by people solving mental processes

  • Functional fixedness

    • Inability to perceive a new use for an object previously associated with some other purpose

    • Adversely effects problems solving and creativity


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Problem Solving

  • Deductive Reasoning

    • Form of thinking in which one draws a conclusion that is intended to follow logically two or more statement or premises

  • Belief-bias effect

    • Person’s prior knowledge, attitudes or valves distort the reasoning process by influencing the person to accept invalid arguments

    • Believable conclusion


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Problem Solving

  • Inductive reasoning

    • A conclusion is made about the probability of some state of affairs based on the available evidence and past experience

  • Mental set

    • Tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used in response to a previous problem


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Judging and Deciding

  • Hubert Simon

    • Founding figure is cognitive Psychology

    • Human thinking powers are modes vs. the complexities of the environment

    • Judgment

      • Process by which people form decision reaching conclusions, and make critical evaluations of events and people based on available materials

      • Product of that mental activity

    • Decision making

      • Process of choosing between alternatives

      • Selecting or rejecting available options


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Judging and Deciding

  • Heuristics and Judgment

    • Amos Tversky and DanileKahneman (1990’s)

    • Availability heuristics

      • Judgment based on the information readily available in memory

    • Moods affect available memory recall

    • Biased in memory recall


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Judging and Deciding

  • Representative heuristics

    • Assigns an object to a category on the basis of a few characteristics regarded as representative of that category

  • Anchoring heuristics

    • Insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting valve when judging the probable valve of some event or outcome

    • Ex.salesman price $1-2k sell to you $500


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Visual Cognition

  • Frame

    • Particular description of a choice

    • Perceptive from which a choice is described or framed affects how a decision is made and which options is ultimately exercised ex. $1000 raise is good unless you thought you were getting $10k raise


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Decision aversion

  • Tendency to avoid decision making

  • The tougher the decision, the greater the likelihood of decision aversion


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