Chapter 8 the rise of rome
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Chapter 8: The Rise of Rome. In your notes, do a quick-write listing everything you know about Ancient Rome. Think about books, movies, mythology, and historical figures. Things to come:. The founding of Rome Aeneas Romulus and Remus Roman soldiers and war Hannibal and the Punic Wars

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Chapter 8: The Rise of Rome

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Chapter 8 the rise of rome

Chapter 8: The Rise of Rome

In your notes, do a quick-write listing everything you know about Ancient Rome. Think about books, movies, mythology, and historical figures.


Things to come

Things to come:

  • The founding of Rome

    • Aeneas

    • Romulus and Remus

  • Roman soldiers and war

    • Hannibal and the Punic Wars

    • The conquests of Julius Caesar

  • The peace of Rome (Pax Romana) and the crazy rulers

    • Caligula and Nero


Section 1 rome s beginnings

  • Italy is in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea.

  • The Alps run across the top of Italy.

    • The Alps _______________.

  • The Apennines run down through Italy, from North to South.

    • The Apennines can be crossed more easily, so _______________________.

  • Italy had better farmland than Greece, so they ____________.

Section 1: Rome’s Beginnings

Today we will explain in writing the importance of geography in the rise of the Roman Civilization.

*Look at the map on page 263. Answer 1 and 2 in your notes.


Section 1 rome s beginnings1

  • The place where Rome was founded is 15 miles from the coast of the Mediterranean, on the ____________.

    • The Tiber River gave Romans

      • a source of water

      • A way to the rest of the Mediterranean world

      • And _______________

  • Rome was built on ________.

    • This made it easy to ______.

    • It was also a stopping place for travelers in Italy and on the Sea.

Section 1: Rome’s Beginnings

Today we will explain in writing the importance of geography in the rise of the Roman Civilization.


Section 1 rome s beginnings2

  • Romulus and Remuswere brothers, abandoned as babies and raised by a wolf. Romulus killed Remus and ____________.

  • Aeneas was a Trojan prince who escaped after the Greeks captured Troy. After a long adventure, he came to the Tiber River and founded Rome.

Section 1: Rome’s Beginnings

Today we will explain in writing how the Romans created a republic and conquered Italy, turning it into a great power.


Section 1 rome s beginnings3

  • The actual story?

    • Historians aren’t sure. They think that Latins lived in the hills of Rome, tending herds of animals, growing crops, and living in huts from 1000 B.C.

    • After a few hundred years, they banded together __________. Their community became known as Rome.

Section 1: Rome’s Beginnings

Today we will explain in writing how the Romans created a republic and conquered Italy, turning it into a great power.


Section 1 rome s beginnings4

  • The Etruscans and the ______ had a major influence on Rome.

    • Greeks taught Romans how to grow grapes and olives, and the Greek alphabet. Romans later copied their architecture, art, and writing.

    • Etruscans took control of Rome and ________. They were great fighters, their cities were well-organized, and they enjoyed feasting and playing sports and music.

Section 1: Rome’s Beginnings

Today we will explain in writing how the Romans created a republic and conquered Italy, turning it into a great power.


Section 1 rome s beginnings5

  • Rome became powerful under Etruscan rule, but the family of kings, the Tarquins, were ______.

  • In 509 B.C., Rome rebelled and formed a republic.

    • The Roman Republic conquered their neighbors, including the Etruscans and the Greeks in southern Italy.

Section 1: Rome’s Beginnings

Today we will explain in writing how the Romans created a republic and conquered Italy, turning it into a great power.


Section 1 rome s beginnings6

  • Why was Rome so strong?

    • They had tough, disciplined fighters.

    • They created a new way of fighting, using legions.

    • They were smart planners.

      • They built settlements in places they conquered.

      • They built roads between these towns.

      • They treated conquered people well.

      • But they were forceful if they had to be.

Section 1: Rome’s Beginnings

Today we will explain in writing how the Romans created a republic and conquered Italy, turning it into a great power.


Section 1 rome s beginnings7

  • *** Create a power outline for a paragraph describing how the Romans created a republic and conquered Italy, turning it into a great power.

Section 1: Rome’s Beginnings

Today we will explain in writing how the Romans created a republic and conquered Italy, turning it into a great power.


Section 2 the roman republic

  • In early Rome, there were two social classes: patricians and plebeians.

    • Patricians were wealthy landowners. They could hold public office.

    • Plebeians were artisans, shopkeepers, and small farm owners.

    • Both groups were ______and both groups paid taxes and served in the ______.

      • Which group do you think was bigger?

      • Who had more respect?

      • Would they have been allowed to marry?

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will describe in writing the Roman republic and legal system, its impact on Ancient Romans and how it relates to government today

RECALL:

*How were Romans treated under the Etruscan kings?

*What kind of government did they form after they rebelled?

CONNECT:

What are the 3 branches of our government?


Section 2 the roman republic1

  • Rome’s government had three parts:

    • A group who ran the government

    • A group who made laws

    • A group who served as judges

  • Checks and balances made sure no group became too powerful.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will describe the Roman republic and legal system, its impact on Ancient Romans and how it relates to government today.


Section 2 the roman republic2

  • In the Roman Republic, the top officials were the consuls.

    • There were 2 consuls.

    • They were elected for 1 year terms.

    • They could veto the other’s decision.

    • Would it be difficult for a consul to abuse their power?

    • Why would consuls be more likely to make good decisions?

  • Praetors interpreted the law and acted as judges.

  • The Senate was made of 300 patrician men who served for life.

    • At first they advised the Consuls. Later they could make laws and hold debates.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will describe the Roman republic and legal system, its impact on Ancient Romans and how it relates to government today.


Section 2 the roman republic3

  • In 494 B.C., the plebeians rebelled because ______.

  • They set up the Council of Plebs and elected a tribune to bring their concerns to the government.

    • The tribunes had the right to veto government decisions.

    • Soon plebeians and patricians were allowed to marry.

    • In 287 B.C. , plebeians were allowed to make laws, too.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will describe the Roman republic and legal system, its impact on Ancient Romans and how it relates to government today.


Section 2 the roman republic4

  • In the Roman Republic, a dictator ruled for a short period of time during an emergency.

    • What is a dictator today?

    • Cincinnatus was a well-known dictator.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will describe the Roman republic and legal system, its impact on Ancient Romans and how it relates to government today.


Section 2 the roman republic5

  • Rome’s first code of laws was The Twelve Tables.

    • Laws were not written down before this. Plebeians demanded that laws be written down.

    • The laws were on display in the Forum.

    • This established the principle that all free citizens had the right to be treated the same way by the law.

  • The Law of Nations was created to solve disputes between citizens and non-citizens.

    • Important ideas about laws:

      • Innocent until proven guilty

      • People accused can defend themselves to a judge

      • A judge must use evidence before making a decision.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will describe the Roman republic and legal system, its impact on Ancient Romans and how it relates to government today.


Section 2 the roman republic6

  • In your notes, list three important contributions the Romans made to ideas about law and government.

  • Rank those in order of importance, with 1 being their most important contribution.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will describe the Roman republic and legal system, its impact on Ancient Romans and how it relates to government today.


Section 2 the roman republic7

  • Rome had conquered Italy, but it had a rival in the Mediterranean: Carthage, on the coast of __________.

    • Carthage had become wealthy by controlling trade in northern Africa and southern Europe.

    • Carthage and Rome both wanted to control ________.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will write a paragraph describing how Rome expanded its control throughout the Mediterranean.


Section 2 the roman republic8

  • The First Punic War, 264 B.C.

    • Carthage vs. Rome

    • Cause: Rome sent an army to Sicily to prevent Carthage from taking it over.

      • Carthaginians already had colonies on the island and wanted to stop the invasion.

      • Rome realized it needed a navy, and built a large fleet.

    • Effect: In 241, Rome won a naval battle. Carthage had to leave and pay Rome huge fines. Rome ruled Sicily (after 20 years!)

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will write a paragraph describing how Rome expanded its control throughout the Mediterranean.


Section 2 the roman republic9

  • The Second Punic War

    • To make up for losing land, Carthage expanded its empire into southern Spain. Rome was not happy, and helped the Spanish ___________.

    • Carthage sent its greatest general, Hannibal, to attack Rome in 218 B.C., starting a war.

    • Hannibal’s strategy was to take the fighting to Italy. He gathered a huge army, including many horses and 37 ______.

      • What do you think of Hannibal’s strategy? Predict the outcome!

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will write a paragraph describing how Rome expanded its control throughout the Mediterranean.


Section 2 the roman republic10

  • Hannibal’s army lost many men and animals crossing the Alps into Italy because _____.

    • Cold, ______, and attacks by mountain tribes killed almost half his soldiers.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will write a paragraph describing how Rome expanded its control throughout the Mediterranean.


Section 2 the roman republic11

  • Outcome:

    • Hannibal was still strong enough to do damage to Rome’s army at the Battle of Cannae. His army raided much of Italy.

    • The Romans raised another army. In 202 B.C., General Scipio invaded ___________.

    • Hannibal had to return home to defend Carthage.

    • Scipio beat Hannibal at the Battle of Zama.

      • Carthage gave up _____

      • Carthage paid a huge fine to Rome.

      • Rome now ruled the western Mediterranean

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will write a paragraph describing how Rome expanded its control throughout the Mediterranean.


Section 2 the roman republic12

  • Rome finally destroyed its rival in the Third Punic War.

    • They burned the city.

    • They enslaved 50,000 men, women, and children.

    • They salted the land so _____.

  • Meanwhile, Rome also conquered Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia.

    • The Mediterranean became known to Romans as “mare nostrum”, or __________.

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will write a paragraph describing how Rome expanded its control throughout the Mediterranean.


Section 2 the roman republic13

  • Outline a power paragraph, describing the causes and outcomes of the Punic Wars.

    • Topic

      • First Punic War

        • Cause

        • Effect

      • Second Punic War

        • Cause

        • Effect

      • Third Punic War

        • Cause

        • Effect

    • Conclusion

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will write a paragraph describing how Rome expanded its control throughout the Mediterranean.


Section 2 the roman republic14

  • The Rise of Rome

    • Choose the 8 events in Rome’s early history that you think are most important, and sequence them in chronological order.

    • On a piece of plain white paper, create a cartoon strip showing each of the events.

    • Use dialogue or captions to describe what is happening.

    • Write you name on the back.

  • This will go on our outside bulletin board, so do your best work!

Section 2: The Roman Republic

Today we will sequence the important events in the founding of Rome and the formation of the Republic by creating a cartoon strip.


Section 3 the fall of the republic

  • Quickwrite:

    • What do you know about Julius Caesar?

    • If you don’t know anything about Caesar (yet), predict what will come next in Rome’s history.

      • Flip back to your notes on The Rise of Rome if you need to!

Section 3: The Fall of the republic

Today we will describe how Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms by writing a cause and effect sentence.


Section 3 the fall of the republic1

  • Rome’s armies were victorious, but there was trouble at home.

    • Recall: What lands had Rome conquered?

    • What was mare nostrum?

  • In the 100s B.C., Roman farmers were poor and in debt.

    • Some hadn’t been able to farm because ______________.

    • Others’ farms had been destroyed by Hannibal’s troops.

    • They couldn’t compete with Roman latifundia, giant farming estates worked by ____________.

  • Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will describe how Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms by writing a cause and effect sentence.

    Predict: What do you think these plebeian farmers did?


    Section 3 the fall of the republic2

    • Farmers sold their farms and moved to Rome for work.

    • Jobs were ___________, and they became angry.

    • Some patricians wanted to reform Rome’s problems, and asked the Senate to give these men small farms.

      • These men were ________.

      • Why would Senators refuse to give them land?

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will describe how Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms by writing a cause and effect sentence.

    Predict: What would the founders of Rome’s Republic think?


    Section 3 the fall of the republic3

    • The Roman army began paying soldiers and offered them land. Generals became politicians to get land.

      • How would this change the way soldiers felt? Who would they be loyal to?

  • A general named Sulla named himself dictator and changed the government for the worse.

    • Sulla stepped down, hoping Rome could become great again, but it led to __________.

    • Other men saw what Sulla did and ___________.

  • Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will describe how Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms by writing a cause and effect sentence.

    Analyze: What it take for Rome to become a great city again?


    Section 3 the fall of the republic4

    • In 60 B.C., Rome was ruled by a Triumvirate of rich military men: Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar.

      • After defeating Gaul, Caesar was very popular.

      • He marched back to Rome with his 5,000 soldiers, starting a civil war.

      • He beat Pompey in battle in 48 B.C. and declared himself ___________.

        • What was the original purpose of the position of dictator?

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will describe how Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms by writing a cause and effect sentence.


    Section 3 the fall of the republic5

    • Caesar made many reforms

      • He granted citizenship to people.

      • He started new colonies to provide land for the jobless and landless.

        • Why would this solution make both plebeians and patricians happy?

      • He created a new calendar.

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will describe how Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms by writing a cause and effect sentence.

    Predict: How did the people of Rome feel about Caesar?


    Section 3 the fall of the republic6

    • Many Romans supported Caesar for bringing peace and order to Rome.

    • His enemies thought he wanted to be king.

      • In 44 B.C., he was stabbed to death on the steps of the Senate.

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will describe how Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms by writing a cause and effect sentence.

    You decide: Were they right to kill Caesar ?


    Section 3 the fall of the republic7

    • Wrap it up:

      • Choose the 2 most important factors that led to Julius Caesar seizing power.

      • Choose the 2 most important reforms Caesar made.

    • Complete the following sentences in your notes.

      • Julius Caesar was able to seize power because _______________.

      • He made reforms by __________.

    • Be prepared to share!

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will describe how Julius Caesar seized power and made reforms by writing a cause and effect sentence.


    Section 3 the fall of the republic8

    • Quickwrite: What is the difference between a republic and an empire?

      • Check your social studies book’s glossary if you need a reminder!

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will explain in writing how Rome became an empire under Augustus.


    Section 3 the fall of the republic9

    • After Caesar’s murder, there was a violent civil war in Rome between the men who killed Caesar and Octavian, Caesar’s grandnephew.

      • After defeating Caesar’s murderers, Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C.

      • They began ________right away.

      • Octavian made Lepidus ______.

      • Octavian and Antony split the Empire in half.

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will explain in writing how Rome became an empire under Augustus.


    Section 3 the fall of the republic10

    • Antony fell in love with Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen.

    • Octavian told the Roman people that Antony was going to make himself the sole ruler with Cleopatra’s help.

      • The people were angry and Octavian declared war on Antony.

      • Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s forces at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.

        • The couple fled to Egypt and soon _______.

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will explain in writing how Rome became an empire under Augustus.


    Section 3 the fall of the republic11

    • Octavian could have made himself dictator for life, but he knew the people of Rome wanted a republican government.

      • Cicero wrote about the need for representative government with limited power. Many people read his works and agreed.

      • Cicero supported Octavian, hoping he would restore the Republic.

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will explain in writing how Rome became an empire under Augustus.


    Section 3 the fall of the republic12

    • In 27 B.C., Octavian announced he was bringing back the Republic. He named himself imperator, or emperor because _________.

    • He took the title Augustus, meaning “the revered or majestic one.”

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will explain in writing how Rome became an empire under Augustus.


    Section 3 the fall of the republic13

    • Write a 1st person paragraph as Octavian, describing how you became Augustus.

      • Begin with the death of Caesar, your great uncle.

      • Include the Second Triumvirate and your battles with Antony.

      • Explain why you chose the government you did, and what effect Cicero had on you.

      • Include how you think the people of Rome might feel about you.

    Section 3: The Fall of the republic

    Today we will explain in writing how Rome became an empire under Augustus.


    Section 4 the early empire

    • Quickwrite: Based on what we learned yesterday about Augustus’s rise to power, what kind of ruler do you think he will be?

      • Predict what things he may do.

      • Predict how he may have died.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will discuss Augustus’s achievements by writing and delivering a funeral speech for him.


    Section 4 the early empire1

    • Augustus’s rule began a period called PaxRomana, or “_____________.”

    • When he became emperor in 27 B.C., Augustus wanted to make the empire ________.

      • He built a permanent, professional army of 150,000 Roman citizens.

        • Why would it matter that they were paid? That they were Roman citizens?

    • He created a special unit called the Praetorian Guard: 9,000 men in charge of __________.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will discuss Augustus’s achievements by writing and delivering a funeral speech for him.


    Section 4 the early empire2

    • Augustus’s legions added to Rome’s territory, conquering all of Spain and Gaul, Austria, Hungary, Romania, & Bulgaria.

    • Augustus rebuilt Rome with __________________.

      • “I found Rome a city of brick and left it a city of marble.”

    • Augustus imported food to feed the poor. He knew a well-fed population would be _______________.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will discuss Augustus’s achievements by writing and delivering a funeral speech for him.


    Section 4 the early empire3

    • Augustus was responsible for the _______ people living in the Roman Empire.

      • He spent most of his reign __________________..

      • He appointed a proconsul (governor) for each of Rome’s provinces.

        • He replaced the old officials who had been chosen by the Senate.

        • He frequently visited provinces to ________________________.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will discuss Augustus’s achievements by writing and delivering a funeral speech for him.


    Section 4 the early empire4

    • He reformed the tax system.

      • Tax collectors became government workers, so they didn’t ___________________.

    • He reformed the legal system.

      • He created laws for people in the provinces who were not citizens.

      • These people eventually became citizens, and all lived by the same laws.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will discuss Augustus’s achievements by writing and delivering a funeral speech for him.


    Section 4 the early empire5

    • Augustus died in 14 A.D. after ruling for 40 years. There was no law about ______________.

      • Augustus had trained a relative, Claudius, to follow him.

      • The 3 emperors after Augustus were from his family, but were not _________________.

        • Caligula was strange and cruel. He had people murdered, wasted money, and appointed his horse as consul.

          • The Praetorian Guard killed him and made Claudius emperor.

        • Nero was vicious. He killed his mother and wives. He is remembered for ___________________.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will discuss Augustus’s achievements by writing and delivering a funeral speech for him.


    Section 4 the early empire6

    • Imagine you were asked to speak at the funeral of Augustus about his many achievements in life.

      • Write a brief eulogy describing what he accomplished in life.

      • For more information on Octavian as a man, see p.289 in your book.

      • Be prepared to share.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will discuss Augustus’s achievements by writing and delivering a funeral speech for him.


    Section 4 the early empire7

    • After Nero killed himself, there was a period of disorder until Vespasian, one of his proconsuls, took over.

      • Why was there disorder after his suicide?

    • Vespasian ended many rebellions in the empire and began building ____________.

    • After he died, his two sons Domitian and Titus ruled. During Titus’s rule, two disasters hit Rome: _______.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will describe how Rome changed under “the Good Emperors” by listing and ordering their accomplishments.


    Section 4 the early empire8

    • At the beginning of 100 A.D. a period of peace and prosperity began under ______________: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

      • Agriculture flourished, trade increased, and the standard of living ________.

      • Trajan gave money to poor parents to help them ________________.

      • Antoninus Pius passed laws to help ____________.

      • Hadrian made laws easier to understand and apply

      • They all supported public building projects, like ____________________.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will describe how Rome changed under “the Good Emperors” by listing and ordering their accomplishments.

    Which of these public building projects would have had the greatest impact on daily life for Romans?


    Section 4 the early empire9

    • Emperors continued to conquer territory for Rome, but it soon became _____________.

      • Hadrian began to pull troops out of Mesopotamia.

      • He built a wall ___________.

      • He set the northern boundaries at the Rhine River and the Danube River.

      • In the West, the empire spoke Latin. In the East, they spoke __________.

        • The languages and customs of the empire were different, but they were united by ____.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will describe how Rome changed under “the Good Emperors” by listing and ordering their accomplishments.

    How would the diversity of languages and cultures affect the empire?


    Section 4 the early empire10

    • During the PaxRomana,

      • Rome had built an extensive network of ____.

        • How would this help the Empire?

    • The Roman navy had rid the Mediterranean of ___.

      • How would this help trade?

  • The Roman empire used a common _______.

    • How would this help trade?

  • The Romans created a standard system of ______.

    • How would this help trade?

  • Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will describe how Rome changed under “the Good Emperors” by listing and ordering their accomplishments.


    Section 4 the early empire11

    • List the 5 most important changes under the “Good Emperors.”

    • Rank them from 1-5, with 1 being the most important change.

    Section 4: The Early Empire

    Today we will describe how Rome changed under “the Good Emperors” by listing and ordering their accomplishments.


    Chapter 9 roman civilization

    Chapter 9: Roman Civilization

    In your notes, do a quick-write listing everything you know about Ancient Roman life: art, culture, inventions, etc.

    (If you don’t know much, write down some questions you have about Roman civilization.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome

    • Romans admired Greece and borrowed many of their ideas, but ______________________.

    • Greeks loved to talk about ideas and philosophy, but Romans only liked ______________.

    • Think back to ancient Greece: How did Greek sculptors portray people?

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe cultural advancements of ancient Rome by illustrating them.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome1

    Roman Art:

    • Roman sculpture portrayed people ______, wrinkles and all

  • Romans used Greek porches and columns, but added _____________.

  • Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe cultural advancements of ancient Rome by illustrating them.

    (A Roman colonnade in the Greek style 


    Section 1 life in ancient rome2

    • Roman builders were the first to perfect the ______.

      • Used it in bridges, aqueducts, and buildings

    • They build many arches together to form a vault, or ________

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe cultural advancements of ancient Rome by illustrating them.

    The oculus of the Pantheon, a huge domed structure with an opening in the top 


    Section 1 life in ancient rome3

    • Roman's were the first to invent concrete, out of volcanic ash, lime, and water

      • Where do you think they got volcanic ash?

    • When dry, it was hard as a rock

    • Roman buildings could be taller and ____________.

    • The Colosseum (80 AD) and the Pantheon (126 AD) are ________.

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe cultural advancements of ancient Rome by illustrating them.

    How might this change Roman architecture and buildings?


    Section 1 life in ancient rome4

    Roman Literature:

    • Roman writers borrowed ideas from ________.

    • Virgil wrote the Aeneid, and borrowed ideas from Homer's Odyssey.

    • Horace wrote satires about __________and odes expressing strong emotions about ______.

    • Ovid wrote stories based on Greek myths

    • Catullus wrote short poems about ______________.

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe cultural advancements of ancient Rome by illustrating them.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome5

    History

    • Roman historians recorded important events in their history

    • Livy wrote History of Rome in 10 BC, describing Rome's ___________.

    • Tacitus wrote a more negative view of Rome's history

      Theater

    • Romans loved plays with _____.

    • Roman playwrights wrote comedies for religious festivals, often based on ___________.

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe cultural advancements of ancient Rome by illustrating them.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome6

    • Choose 2 cultural advancements of the ancient Romans and illustrate them.

      • (Think architecture, literature, theater, history, etc.)

      • Be prepared to share.

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe cultural advancements of ancient Rome by illustrating them.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome7

    Daily Life in Rome

    • Rome and other cities in its empire were organized around a Forum, an __________.

    • Wealthy Romans lived in __________.

    • The city of Rome was crowded, noisy and dirty

      • People tossed garbage in the streets

      • Thieves prowled the streets

      • Families lived in 1 room apartments

    • Roman apartments were 6 stories high and often collapsed because _________.

    • Fires started easily and __________.

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe the lives of ancient Romans by writing a short, first-person narrative.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome8

    Families

    • Families were large and included ______________________.

    • The paterfamilias or “____________" had complete control of the family

      • He punished children severely for _______.

      • He arranged their __________.

      • If they were wealthy, he made sure his children were _________. 

    • Older girls studied reading and writing at home, and ____________.

    • Between 14 and 16, a Roman boy celebrated _____________.

      • He burned his toys, put on a toga, and ___________________.

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe the lives of ancient Romans by writing a short, first-person narrative.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome9

    Women in Rome

    • Women had some rights but were not _________.

    • Paterfamilias ran the family, but ________________.

    • A woman's rights depended on ____.

      • Wealthy women could own land, run businesses, and sell property

      • They had slaves to work their houses, so they could study fashion, literature, art and go to the theater

    • Women with less money had less freedom. They spent their time _________.

      • They could shop, visit friends, go to temples, and visit the Roman baths

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe the lives of ancient Romans by writing a short, first-person narrative.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome10

    Slaves

    • Slaves worked in homes, fields, mines, and workshops, They built roads, bridges, and aqueducts.

    • Many Greeks slaves were educated, and served as _______.

    • Life for most slaves was _________. 

      • They were punished severely for ____________.

    • Slaves often rebelled.

    • In 73 BC, a slave rebellion was led by Spartacus.

      • 70,000 slaves faced the Roman army and _____.

      • 2 years later, they were defeated.

      • Spartacus and 6,000 of his men were ________. 

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe the lives of ancient Romans by writing a short, first-person narrative.


    Section 1 life in ancient rome11

    • Choose one of the following people and write a narrative diary entry about your day.

      • Wealthy woman

      • Wealthy man

      • Poor woman

      • Poor man

      • Slave

    • Be sure to describe what sorts of things you did, saw, and felt.

    • Be prepared to share!

    Section 1: Life in ancient rome

    Today we will describe the lives of ancient Romans by writing a short, first-person narrative.


    Section 2 the fall of rome

    The Decline of Rome

    • Review: Who were the 5 good emperors? What did they do?

    • In 180 AD, Marcus Aurelius died.

      • His son Commodus became _____.

      • Commodus was cruel and ______.

      • Instead of ruling Rome, he spent his time _____________.

      • When an emperor's bodyguard killed him, ___________________.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will describe the factors contributing to Rome’s decline by outlining a power paragraph.


    Section 2 the fall of rome1

    • After Commodus died, a line of emperors called the Severans ruled Rome.

      • They spent their time putting down rebellions and ______________.

      • They ignored the growing crime and poverty in Rome. 

    • When the last Severan ruler died in 235 AD, Rome's government became _______.

      • For 50 years, army generals fought each other for the throne.

      • Rome was ruled by _____different emperors. 

    • Review: What kinds of values did Romans have during the Republic?

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will describe the factors contributing to Rome’s decline by outlining a power paragraph.


    Section 2 the fall of rome2

    • Few Romans honored the old Roman ideals of _________.

    • Since the government was full of corruption, many talented people _________.

    • Many wealthy people stopped ________.

    • Few people _________, and a huge part of Rome's population were __________.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will describe the factors contributing to Rome’s decline by outlining a power paragraph.


    Section 2 the fall of rome3

    Economic and Military Problems

    • In the 200s AD, Rome's economy began to _____.

    • Government weakened, and law and order broke down.

    • Roman soldiers and invaders _____.

    • As the economy worsened, people bought fewer goods.

      • Businesses closed.

      • Workers lost their jobs and had to ___.

      • A plague broke out, killing ______.

    • The value of money began to decrease, so people started ____. 

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will describe the factors contributing to Rome’s decline by outlining a power paragraph.


    Section 2 the fall of rome4

    • Meanwhile, ______________.

      • In the west, Germanic tribes raided Roman towns and farms.

      • In the east, Persian armies pushed into the empire's territory. 

    • Rome couldn't pay its own soldiers anymore, so they _____.

      • They were not loyal to _____. 

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will describe the factors contributing to Rome’s decline by outlining a power paragraph.


    Section 2 the fall of rome5

    • Outline a power paragraph describing the 3 main factors contributing to the decline of Rome.

      • Topic

        • Reason 1

          • TMM

        • Reason 2

          • TMM

        • Reason 3

          • TMM

      • Conclusion

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will describe the factors contributing to Rome’s decline by outlining a power paragraph.


    Section 2 the fall of rome6

    Diocletian’s Reforms

    • When Diocletian became emperor, he thought it was ____.

      • He divided the empire into four parts and ___________.

      • He kept authority over all of Rome.

    • He tried to boost the economy.

      • He made rules setting prices of goods and wages for workers.

      • He ordered people to ___________.

    • Diocletian’s reforms failed because ________________.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will sequence the 5 most important events in the fall of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome7

    • Diocletian retired in 305 A.D.

      • Another _____ became emperor in 312 A.D.

      • What do you think was happening from 305-312 A.D.?

    • Constantine tried to fix the _____.

      • Sons of workers had to follow their father’s trade.

      • Sons of farmers had to work the land their fathers worked.

      • Sons of soldiers had to serve in the army.

      • His reforms failed, so he __________.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will sequence the 5 most important events in the fall of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome8

    • Constantine was Rome’s first Christian Emperor.

      • During battle, he saw a ________ that said “By this sign thou shall conquer.”

        • He converted to ________.

        • He gave new opportunities and power to Christians.

          • What had it been like up to this point for Christians?

          • He had many political and religious successes, but his life was also ______.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will sequence the 5 most important events in the fall of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome9

    The Fall of Rome

    • After Constantine died in 337 AD, there was more _______.

      • Theodosius became the next emperor.

      • He decided to ________after his death.

      • In 395 A.D., the Roman Empire split into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.

        • Rome was capitol of the West. Constantinople was capitol of the East.

    • Rome could no longer hold back the Germanic tribes on its borders.

      • They were in search of _______.

      • They were attracted by Rome’s ______.

      • Many were fleeing Huns in Asia.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will sequence the 5 most important events in the fall of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome10

    • In the 300s, the Huns defeated the Ostrogoths.

      • The Visigoths asked the Eastern Roman emperor for ________.

      • He let them settle within Rome’s borders in exchange for _______.

      • They soon fought, and the Visigoths rebelled, _______.

      • They realized Rome couldn’t defend itself, and more tribes came in search of _______.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will sequence the 5 most important events in the fall of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome11

    • In 410 A.D., a Visigoth leader and his soldiers captured Rome, burned records, and emptied the treasury.

      • It was the first time Rome had been conquered in ____ years!

      • The Vandals overran Spain and northern Africa.

        • Then they went to Italy, took everything valuable, and ______.

          • What modern word came from the name of a Germanic tribe?

          • What does it mean?

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will sequence the 5 most important events in the fall of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome12

    The Fall of the Empire

    • In 476 A.D., a Germanic general named Odoacer took control, over throwing the ______ emperor of the western empire.

      • He was the last emperor to rule Rome. Historians mark this as the ______.

    • Odoacer ruled for 15 years.

      • He was killed by Visigoths, who set up a kingdom in Italy under their king, Theodoric.

    • Germanic kingdoms ________.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will sequence the 5 most important events in the fall of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome13

    • In your notes, find the 5 most important events leading up to the fall of Rome.

      • On a half-sheet of paper, list the events in chronological order.

      • Please summarize what we discussed in class or explain it in your own words.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will sequence the 5 most important events in the fall of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome14

    Roman Ideas and Government Today

    • Roman ideas about law, which were first put down in the _______, are still important today.

      • We believe all people are ______

      • We expect judges to decide cases ___

      • We consider a person innocent until proven _____

    • Like the Romans, we believe a republic made up of equal citizens is the best government

    • We believe citizens must do their duty and participate in government to ______________.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome15

    Roman Influence on Culture

    • The alphabet of Latin is used throughout the Western world today

    • Latin shaped the languages of Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, and Romania.

    • Many English words come from Latin. 

      • ______________ use Latin phrases.

      • Every known plant and animal species is classified by a Latin name.

    • People still study and admire the works of ancient Roman writers.

    • Ancient Rome left a lasting mark on buildings in the Western world.

      • We still use ________ for construction, and many Roman architectural styles, especially in Washington D.C. and state capitals.

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome16

    Christianity

    • Today Christianity is one of the most _______ world religions. 

    • It began during the Roman Empire, and spread quickly when it was adopted by Rome's government in the 300s A.D.

      • Who was the first Christian Roman emperor?

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of Rome.


    Section 2 the fall of rome17

    • Without using words, create a collage or an image illustrating Rome's influence on the world today. 

      • Be prepared to share!

    Section 2: The fall of rome

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of Rome.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire

    • The Eastern Roman Empire was also known as the Byzantine Empire.

      • It stretched from Italy in the west to Arabia in the east and Egypt in the south.

    • By the 500s A.D., Constantinople was one of the world’s greatest cities.

      • When did Constantine make it the new capital of the empire?

      • What was it called before he renamed it?

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will describe the rise of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire1

    • It was successful in part because of its location on the waterways between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea.

      • It’s harbors offered a safe shelter for fishing boats, trading ships, and war boats.

    • It was located at the crossroads of trade routes between Europe and Asia.

      • Why would that be beneficial?

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will describe the rise of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire2

    • It was located on a peninsula, so Constantinople was easily defended.

      • Ocean on 3 sides and a great wall on the fourth protected them from attack.

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will describe the rise of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire3

    • In 10-15 words, describe the rise of the Byzantine Empire.

      • Be prepared to share!

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will describe the rise of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire4

    • Justinian was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 527-565 A.D.

    • He was a strong leader, who controlled the military, made laws, and was a supreme ____.

      • No one could question his orders.

      • His wife, Empress Theodora, helped run the empire.

    • Write about it: Why do you think Justinian was able to be a strong ruler when so many Roman emperors struggled to control the empire?

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire5

    • Theodora was intelligent and strong-willed.

      • She convinced Justinian to give women more rights.

      • She helped Justinian choose _____.

      • She helped save Justinian’s ___.

        • When angry taxpayers stormed the palace to overthrow Justinian, his advisors urged him to leave Constantinople.

        • His wife urged him to _______.

        • He crushed the uprising, restored order, and strengthened his power.

        • Write about it: How do you think this strengthened Justinians power?

        • What would you have done?

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire6

    • Justinian wanted to reunite the Roman Empire and bring back _______.

      • To do this, he had to conquer Western Europe and northern Africa.

      • He sent a general to lead the Byzantine army.

      • The army used cavalry, or _______, instead of foot soldiers.

      • The army quickly conquered most of Italy, northern Africa, and Persia.

    • Consider Rome’s fate, and predict what will happen next.

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire7

    • Justinian conquered too much too quickly.

      • When he died, the empire didn’t have enough money to maintain an army large enough to _______.

    • Justinian thought the empire’s laws were disorganized and ___.

      • He ordered a group of legal scholars to reform the law code.

      • The simplified laws became known as Justinian’s Code.

        • The Justinian Code has influenced nearly every European country today.

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire8

    • The Byzantine Empire lasted for nearly 1,000 years. It had a great legacy:

      • They preserved and spread Greek _____ and Roman _____.

      • They spread ______ in Eastern Europe.

      • They became rich by trading.

      • Women gained many rights.

      • Learning was highly respected in Byzantine culture.

        • The government supported training scholars and government officials.

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of the Byzantine Empire.


    Section 3 the byzantine empire9

    • Without using any words, create a picture illustrating the legacy of the Byzantine Empire.

    • Be prepared to share!

    Section 3: the byzantine empire

    Today we will illustrate the legacy of the Byzantine Empire.


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