Chapter 7 Leading Technical People. Managing Engineering and Technology. Management Functions. Managing Technology. Personal Technology. Planning. Research. Time Management. Design. Ethics. Decision Making. Production. Career. Organizing. Quality. Leading. Marketing. Controlling.
Project ManagementAdvanced Organizer
Formal & rational methods
Passion & emotion
Leadership & Management
Ask how and when
Ask what and why
Focus on systems
Focus on people
Do things right
Do the right things
Short term perspective
Longer term perspective
Are a copy
Are originalLeadership & Management
Leadership is the process of getting the cooperation of others in accomplishing a desired goal.
“mixture of persuasion, compulsion, and example that makes men do what you want them to do.”
--Sir William Slim, commander of the British Army
“You know what makes leadership? It is the ability to get men to do what they don't want to do and like it.”
1. The most favored Energy Source:
(E) Extraversion <> (I) Introversion
2. The most favored Perceiving Mental Process:
(S)Sensing<> (N) Intuition
3. The favored Judging Mental Process:
(T)Thinking<> (F) Feeling
4. The mental process leads to Outside World Orientation:
(J) Judging <> (P) Perceiving
I. People/Task Matrix Approaches
II. Situational Approaches
(1,9) Country Club Management
(9,9) Team Management, in which individual objectives are achieved in the process of achieving organizational goals,
Concern for People
(5,5) Middle of the Road Management
(9,1) Authority Compliance Management
(1,1) Impoverished Management
Concern for Production
L(IS)/H(C)Ohio State studies
Hersey and Blanchard life-cycle theory (or "maturity" theory)
"the most effective leadership progresses with time through the four quadrants”
The manager must develop a reward system, a leadership style, or an organizational structure to be appropriate for the unique combination of such factors as
"a continuum of leadership style extending from complete retention of power by the manager to complete freedom for subordinates"
3 deciding forces:
"merely successful" (Table 7-3)
"effective leaders" (Table 7-4)
"A leader is best when people barely know he exists. Not so good when people obey and acclaim him.
Worse when they despise him.
But of a good leader who talks little, when his work is done and his aim fulfilled, they will say, "We did it ourselves."
-- Lao Tsu, 600 B.C.
Definition of Motive:
– Berelson & Steiner
Definition of Motivation:
Additional beliefsof "Theory X":
“Theory X places exclusive reliance upon external control of human behavior, while Theory Y relies heavily on self-control and self-direction. It is worth noting that this difference between treating people as children and treating them as adults.”
Based on human needs and people’s effort to satisfy them
Assumes that behavioral choices are based on expected outcomes
Process theories treat human needs as just one part of the mechanism that people use in choosing their behavior. These theories place greater emphasis on the expectation of favorable consequences or rewards.
“People want to be treated fairly relative to the treatment of others.”
Valence of Outcomes
Effort to Performance Expectancy
Performance to Outcome Expectancy
Behavior is followed by an event (reinforcement) that affects the probability that the behavior is repeated.
General Nature of the Technical Professional
Dimensions of technical leadership
Leading as orchestration -- McCall