Ch 10 part ii
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Ch. 10 – Part II. Ideal Gas – is an imaginary gas that conforms perfectly to all the assumptions of the kinetic theory. A gas has 5 assumptions 1. Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles. 2. The particles of a gas are in constant motion, moving rapidly in all directions.

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Ch. 10 – Part II

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Ch 10 part ii

Ch. 10 – Part II

  • Ideal Gas – is an imaginary gas that conforms perfectly to all the assumptions of the kinetic theory.

  • A gas has 5 assumptions

  • 1. Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles.

  • 2. The particles of a gas are in constant motion, moving rapidly in all directions.


Ch 10 part ii

  • 3. The average kinetic energy of the particles of a gas is directly proportional to the temp. of a gas.

    • KE= ½ MV

  • 4. There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between the particles of a gas.

  • 5. The collision between particles of a gas and between particles and container walls are elastic collisions.


Ch 10 part ii

  • Fluid – a gas or liquid

  • A gas is about 1/1000 the density of the same substance as a solid or liquid. Why?

    • Molecules are farther apart.

  • Compression – gas under pressure.

    • By compressing a gas you can have as much as 100 times more molecules in a cylinder than uncompressed.

  • Effusion – is a process by which gas particles under pressure pass through a very small opening from one container to another.

  • What is diffusion?


Ch 10 part ii

  • Real gas – is a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic energy.

    • Johannes van der Waals proposed this.

  • Real gases are explained by the following:

    • 1. Particles of real gases occupy space

    • 2. Particles of real gases exert attractive forces on each other.

  • Gases behave different when heated, cooled, or under pressure.

  • Under “normal conditions” a gas is considered to be an ideal gas.


Gases have 4 measurable quantities

Gases have 4 measurable quantities

  • 1. Volume

  • 2. Pressure

  • 3. Temperature

  • 4. Quantity of molecules (number)

  • If 3 of these quantities are known then you can figure the fourth one.


Ch 10 part ii

  • If air is heated it can expand its volume many times. If it’s cooled it compresses.

  • Pressure is measured by how fast the gas molecules are moving. Determined by how many times the molecules hit the container it is in.

    • Ex. Small vs. large container with 10 molecules.

  • Temp. increases = pressure increase

  • Temp. decreases = pressure decrease

  • Volume decreases = pressure increase

  • Volume increase = pressure decrease


Ch 10 part ii

  • The more molecules of gas in a container, the more pressure it has. Why?

  • In the winter time the pressure in your car tire is less. Why?

  • If you blow up a balloon the volume is constant if the temp. and pressure are constant.

  • IDEAL GAS LAW CONSTANT

    • R = PV/nT


Ch 10 part ii

  • Pressure – is the force per unit area on a surface

    • P = f/a

    • Label  N/cm2 or Pascals

    • 1 N/cm2 = 1 Pascal

  • The SI unit for force is Newtons (N)

  • Barometer – is a device used to measure the atmospheric pressure.

    • Torricelli discovered this.

  • In a vacuum condition and a sea level a colum of mercury or barometer will rise 760 mm.


Ch 10 part ii

  • 760 mm of Hg is the atmospheric pressure at sea level and at 0 degrees C.

  • 760 mm of Hg = 760 torr. or 1 atm. of pressure

  • Sample Problem 10.1

  • Standard conditions or STP – standard temperature and pressure.

    • 1 atm. Of pressure, 760 torr., or 760 mm Hg  Pressure

    • 273 K or 0 degrees Celsius  Temperature

    • 1 Liter or 1000 ml  Volume


Ch 10 part ii

  • Robert Boyle discovered that pressure and volume are inversely proportional to each other.

    • Ex. Double the volume = ½ the pressure

    • Ex. Triple the pressure = 1/3 the volume

    • Ex. Pushing in on the sides of a balloon increases the pressure of the air inside the balloon.

  • P1V1 = P2V2

  • Sample Problem 10-2


Ch 10 part ii

  • Charles’ Law – states that the volume of a gas varies directly to the temperature of the gas.

    • Ex. Double the temp. = double the volume

    • Ex. Hot air balloon

  • V1/T1 = V2/T2

  • Sample Problem 10-3


Ch 10 part ii

  • Gay-Lussac’s Law – states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the temp. of the gas.

    • Ex. Double temp. = double the pressure

    • Ex. Car tires

  • P1/T1 = P2/T2

  • Sample Problem 10-4


Ch 10 part ii

  • Combined gas law – shows the relationship between pressure, volume, and temp. of a gas when the amount of gas is fixed.

  • P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2

  • Sample Problems


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