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Do Now. At your table, share some good things that have happened this week. You do not need to write this down. Make sure you have turned everything in (syllabus, 5 themes photos, paragraph, quiz corrections). Climate and Vegetation Regions. September 7, 2012.

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Do Now

  • At your table, share some good things that have happened this week.

  • You do not need to write this down.

  • Make sure you have turned everything in (syllabus, 5 themes photos, paragraph, quiz corrections).


Climate and Vegetation Regions

September 7, 2012


The Köppen Climate Classification

  • 3 letter system

    • First letter = temperature

    • Second letter = precipitation

    • Third letter = finer shades of temperature

  • Csa = Mediterranean

    • C = middle latitude temperature

    • s = summer dry

    • a = hot summers (as opposed to warm)


The Köppen Climate Classification

  • A= Tropical (equatorial regions)

  • B=Deserts (arid, semiarid)

  • C=Mesothermal (mild winter)

  • D=Microthermal (cold winter)

  • E= Polar (always cold)

  • H= Highland (mountains, plateaus)


Climate Regions


Vegetation Regions


Tropical Humid Climates (A)

  • 36% of Earth’s total surface

  • Consistently warm

  • Subcategories based on rainfall

    • Tropical rainforest

    • Tropical monsoon

    • Tropical savanna


Climate: Tropical Rainforest

  • High rainfall all year

  • Surrounds Equator


Vegetation: Tropical Rainforest

  • Region: surrounds Equator

  • Vegetation: tall trees, ferns, vines

    • Highest density of plant species

  • Animals: insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds

    • More animal species than all other biomes combined

  • Among most threatened biomes


Climate: Savanna

  • Surround tropical rainforests

  • Rainfall: 35-70”/year

  • Desertification


Vegetation: Savanna

  • Region: around tropical rainforests

  • Vegetation: grasses, scattered trees and shrubs

  • Animals: large grazing animals and predators


Dry Arid / Semiarid Climates (B)

  • 33% of Earth’s total surface

  • Water deficits

  • Subcategories

    • Desert

    • Steppe


Climate: Desert

  • Wide range in temperature

    • Hot at low latitudes

    • Variation at high latitudes

  • Variation in rainfall

    • < 10 inches/year

  • Desertification


Vegetation: Desert

  • Vegetation: Cacti, small flowers, shrubs

  • Animals: birds, small predators, reptiles


Climate: Steppe

  • More precipitation than deserts

  • Narrower range in temperatures

  • Grasslands

  • Transitions between deserts and humid climates


Vegetation: Grasslands

  • Region: Central North America, parts of Africa, Australia, SE South America (Pampas)

  • Best soil on Earth

  • Vegetation: grasses, some trees and bushes

  • Animals: large grazing animals, burrowing animals, a few predators


Mesothermal Climates (C)

  • 20 % of Earth’s surface

  • “Middle temperatures”

  • True seasons

  • Subcategories based on precipitation

    • Humid subtropical

    • Marine west coast

    • Mediterranean


Climate: Humid Subtropical

  • Hot summer

  • Cold spells

  • Year-round precipitation


Vegetation: Temperate Forest (Deciduous)

  • Region: Western Europe, East Asia, Eastern U.S.

  • Good soil for agriculture

  • Broad leafed deciduous trees: oaks, hickories, maples

  • Animals hibernate and migrate


Climate: Mediterranean

  • Surrounds Mediterranean Sea

  • Dry summers

  • Parts of Australia, South Africa, and Chile


Vegetation: Mediterranean

  • Region: west coast and central California, SW. Australia, tip of South Africa, West Peru, Chile, Mediterranean

  • Vegetation: grassland, scattered trees, shrubs

  • Valuable for agriculture

  • At risk for fires, erosion, and desertification


Microthermal Climates (D)

  • Almost entirely in the Northern Hemisphere

  • Humid continental


Climate: Humid Continental

  • Long, cold winters

  • Moderate precipitation

  • Large temperature range


Vegetation: Coniferous Forest

  • Region: northern parts of North America, Europe, Asia, South America, New Zealand, southern Australia

  • Vegetation: coniferous trees (needle-leaved)

  • Animals: large herbivores, predators

  • Problems: acid rain, logging, oil drilling


Polar Climates (E)

  • < 50°F all year

  • High winds

  • Surround North and South Poles

  • Subcategories

    • Tundra

    • Ice caps


Climate: Tundra

  • Very low precipitation

  • 32-50°F


Vegetation: Tundra

  • Region: North of the coniferous forest, high latitudes of northern hemisphere in a belt around the Arctic Ocean, near the coast

  • Permafrost

  • Vegetation: mosses, low grasses, small plants

  • Animals: small burrowing, migratory, some predators


Climate: Ice Caps

  • < 32°F

  • Very little precipitation

  • North and South Poles


Highland Climates (H)

  • Lower temperatures

  • More moisture

  • High winds


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