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COOPERATIVE LEARNING Reciprocal Teaching ROMBEL 1. RENA LYSTYA NINGRUM. DINA NOVITA WIJAYANTI. KHARISMA CLEVERIAN. HESNY NENO. DEFINITION OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING. Cooperative learning is a specific kind of collaborative learning.

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COOPERATIVE LEARNING Reciprocal Teaching ROMBEL 1

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Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

COOPERATIVE LEARNINGReciprocal TeachingROMBEL 1

RENA LYSTYA NINGRUM

DINA NOVITA WIJAYANTI

KHARISMA CLEVERIAN

HESNY NENO


Definition of cooperative learning

DEFINITION OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING

Cooperative learning is a specific kind of collaborative learning

It promotes the idea that students work together to learn and are responsible for one another’s learning as well as their own (Slavin, 1991)


The criteria of cooperative learning

The Criteria of Cooperative Learning

The students work together in small group on a structured activity

Cooperative groups work face to face and learn to work as team


The role of small group

The Role of Small Group

Learners actively participate

Teachers become learners at times

Diversity is celebrated

Students learn for resolving conflicts

Students draw upon past experience and knowledge

Students are interested in their own learning


Cooperative learning emphasizes in students role than teachers

Cooperative learning emphasizes in students’ role than teachers’


The impact of cooperative learning

The Impact of Cooperative Learning

The achievement levels were significantly higher when cooperative learning methods were used as compared to individualistic

Individual learning

Cooperative learning

VS


Types of cooperative learning

Types of Cooperative Learning


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

DEFINITION OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING

Nature of interactions since one person acts in response to another

RECIPROCAL

MEANS

Reciprocal teaching is based on the dialogues and discussions between the learners themselves or the students and the teacher (Blakey and Spence (1990))

Exchanging roles between theteacher and the learners which make the students responsible for their roles in the teaching learningprocess and allows students to support each other continuously.


The origin of reciprocal teaching

The Origin of Reciprocal Teaching

To help students who face obstacle in reading comprehension.

HISTORICALLY

PALINSCAR

& BROWN 1984

CONSTRUCTIVISM

THEORETICALLY

In getting knowledge learning for understanding and recognizing meaning


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

Cognitive Appretisceship

Theories of Scaffolding

Zone Proximal Development

Principles of Reciprocal Teaching

Propleptic Teaching


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

Think Aloud

Cooperative learning

scaffolding

metacognition


Three components of reciprocal teaching

Three Components of Reciprocal Teaching

The teaching and learning of specific reading comprehension strategies

The dialogue between an instructor and students where the instructor models why, when, and where to use these reading comprehension strategies

The appropriating of the instructor by the students , that is students begin to model the reading comprehension strategies for other students


The strategies of reciprocal teaching

The Strategies of Reciprocal Teaching

Predicting

Questioning

Clarifying

Summarizing


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

PREDICTING

This strategy gives opportunities for the students to make the use of the main titles and subtitles as well as the questions of the text in predicting the content of the text before reading it.

EXAMPLE:

The leader may ask

“what do you expect the next paragraph to be about?”


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

Questioning

  • to help his/her learners find the most important information in the text .

  • to direct and answer questions about the text and find the most important information in the text.

  • Give questions which reflect high thinking abilities.

EXAMPLE:

the LEADER may ask “what is the main idea in the paragraph?”


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

Clarifying

  • It supports students in monitoring their own comprehension.

  • It gets them to think about what is confusing to them as they read.

Example

  • “what is the meaning of the sentence?”.


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

Summarizing

The students organize the main idea in order they can understand the relationship between them

“Can I use my own language to retell the story from the text?”


The implementation

The Implementation

The teacher explains every activity. It is important to emphasize activities that may promote these processes.

The teacher distributes cards containing the tasks in the sub-strategies for the students in their regular setting.

The teacher leads the dialogue and applies the sub-strategies to one of the paragraphs.

The teacher chooses a leader who plays the role of the teacher for every group. Then the leader exchanges his/her role with his/her classmates in the group after every dialogue


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

CONTINUED

  • The teacher distributes copies of the text for every student in the all groups.

  • The teacher gives enough time for silent reading according to the length and complexity of the text.

  • The leader of each group coordinates the task selection in his/her group and each member outlines his/her task to their group and answers their questions.

  • After ending the dialogues, the teacher distributes questions about the content of the text to assess the students’ comprehension.


Reciprocal teaching as technique to teach reading comprehension

Reciprocal teaching as technique to teach reading comprehension


Reading comprehension

Reading Comprehension

It is type of reading to check whether the students understand and comprehend the text or not


The relationship between reciprocal teaching reading comprehension

The relationship between reciprocal teaching & reading comprehension

Reciprocal teaching parallels the new definition of reading that describes the process of reading as an interactive process in which readers interact with the text as their prior experience is achieved


The goals of reciprocal teaching

THE GOALS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING

To improve students’ reading comprehension using four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying and summarizing

To scaffold the four strategies by modeling, guiding and applying the strategies while reading

To guide students to think about their own thinking

To help students monitor their comprehension using the four strategies

To use the social nature of learning to improve and scaffold reading


Cooperative learning reciprocal teaching rombel 1

ADVANTAGES

OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING

Effective in helping students to improve their reading ability

Creates the new technique of reading that describes the process of reading as interactive

Easily understood and mastered by both teachers and students


Conclusion

CONCLUSION

Reciprocal teaching is a cooperative learning instructional technique which creates natural dialogue models and reveals learners’ thinking processes about a shared learning.


References

REFERENCES

  • Abrahams, F., & Abrahams, D. (2010) .The Impact of Reciprocal Teaching on the Development of Musical Understanding in High School Student Members of Performing Ensembles: An Action Research. Research in Music Education, 15(1) ,1-33. Retrieved November 8, 2012, from www-usr.rider.edu/~vrme/v15n1/visions/Impact of Reciprocal Teaching on Musical Understanding. Abrahams and Abrahams.pdf.

  •  Ahmadi, M. R. (2012) . Reciprocal Teaching Strategies and Their Impacts on English Reading Comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(10) , 2053-2060. Retrieved November 18, 2012, from http://ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/tpls/article/view/tpls021020532060/5538.

  • Ockuz. L. D. (2005) . Reciprocal Teaching Strategies at Work: Improving Reading Comprehension, Grades 2–6: Videotape Viewing Guide and Lesson Materials. New York : International Reading Association.

  • Tsong, C. (2007) . Learning ReadingStrategies Together Through Reciprocal Teaching. Otawa: Wa Ying College.


Thank you

Thank You


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