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If you do not have a copy of the SWTRs handouts, a copy can be downloaded from the Encounter Collaborative meeting page:https://ei.e2c.com/enc/enc-pc.pmtg


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Encounter Customer Care

General Technical Support at Encounter

800-290-5900, Option 1

Or press *0 on your telephone when dialed into your Express, Priority, or Broadcast Number to be transferred directly to Customer Care.


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How many people are attending at your location?

  • 1 Person

  • 2 - 4 People

  • 5 - 10 People

  • 10 - 20 People

  • More than 20 People


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New

Evaluation Form –

  • Available on the web at:

    • http://yosemite.epa.gov/ogwdw/ogwdwsurvey.nsf/surveyhome?openform

    • Enter code: survey07

  • Please email [email protected] if you have questions


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Happy Sweet Sixteen!!!!!!!!

June 29, 1989

June 29, 2005


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Surface Water Treatment Rules (SWTRs)

U.S. EPA

Webcast Training Session

June 29, 2005

2:00-4:00pm EST


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SWTRs

  • SWTRs Training encompasses requirements of the following regulations:

    • Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR)

    • Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR)

    • Long Term Enhanced 1 Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR)

    • Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (FBRR)


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SWTRs


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SWTRs Purpose

  • Purpose: To improve public health protection through the control of microbial contaminants, including requirements for removal and/or inactivation of:

    • Viruses

    • Giardia Lamblia

    • Cryptosporidium


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SWTRs Scope

  • Scope:

    • Applies to all public water systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI), otherwise known as “Subpart H systems.”

      • Require all Subpart H systems to:

        • Disinfect

        • Filter

        • Individual filter monitoring & establishes CFE limits

        • Apply treatment technique requirements for control of microbials.

          • Exception – Systems meeting Filter Avoidance Criteria only need to disinfect


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Outline

  • History of Microbials

  • Overview of SWTR, IESWTR, and LT1ESWTR Requirements

  • Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking

    • Lessons Learned in the Process (City of Manassas, VA)

  • Other Requirements under the SWTR

  • Turbidity Requirements

    • Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems

    • Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative Filtration

    • Unfiltered Systems

      • Case Studies

  • Additional Resources

Overview


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The requirements that apply to each

system depend on the system’s treatment

process.

Applicability to Systems

  • This presentation covers:

    • Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems

    • Slow Sand and Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative Filtration Systems

    • Unfiltered Systems

Overview


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Ed Moriarty, U.S. EPA

Maria Lopez, U.S. EPA

Linda Hills, The Cadmus Group, Inc.

Tom Grubbs, U.S. EPA

Mike Finn, U.S. EPA

Presenters

Panelists

Overview


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Disclaimer

  • The examples included in this presentation are intended for discussion purposes only.  Throughout this presentation, the terms “state” or “states” are used to refer to all types of primacy agencies including U.S. territories, Indian tribes, and EPA Regions. The statutory provisions and EPA regulations described in this document contain legally binding requirements. This presentation is not a regulation itself, nor does it change or substitute for those provisions and regulations. Thus, it does not impose legally binding requirements on EPA, states, or public water systems. This guidance does not confer legal rights or impose legal obligations upon any member of the public. While EPA has made every effort to ensure the accuracy of the discussion in this presentation, the obligations of the regulated community are determined by statutes, regulations, or other legally binding requirements. In the event of a conflict between the discussion in this presentation and any statute or regulation, this presentation would not be controlling.

Overview


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Regulated Pathogens:

Viruses

Giardia

Cryptosporidium

In excess amounts:

Nausea

Cramps

Diarrhea

Associated headaches

More serious health effects for infants, elderly or other immune-compromised people

Public Health & Regulated Pathogens

Overview


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History of Microbials


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The Challenge of Microbial Organisms

  • What They Do Was Known Before What They Are

    • Hippocrates: Boil and Strain Water ~300BC

    • Chlorination to Prevent ‘Child Bed Fever’ - 1846

    • John Snow Closes the Broad Street Well, London, 1854 - Terminates Cholera Epidemic

  • What They Do Was Known Before How To Detect Them In Drinking Water

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

1974 – Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

1976 – National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR): Coliform and Turbidity

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

1986 – Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWA Amendments)

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

1989 – Total Coliform Rule (TCR); Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR)

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

1996 – Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWA Amendments)

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

1998 – Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR); Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (S1DBPR)

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

2001 – Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (FBRR)

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

2002 – Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR)

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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History of M-DBP Regulations

200? – Future Rules: Revised TCR

2005 – Proposed S2DBPR, LT2ESWTR, GWR

LT1ESTWR – 2002

FBRR – 2001

IESWTR and S1DBPR – 1998

SDWA Amendments – 1996

WI Crypto Outbreak – 1993

TCR and SWTR – 1989

MO E. Coli Outbreak – 1989

GA Crypto Outbreak – 1987

SDWA Amendments – 1986

MA Giardia Outbreak – 1985

THM – 1979

NPIDWRs – 1976

SDWA – 1974

Overview


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National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR)

  • Effective from 1975 to 1986 SDWA Amendments

  • Total Coliform Monitoring and MCL Based on USPHS Drinking Water Regulations of 1962

  • Turbidity MCL for Surface Water

  • Recognized Underreporting of Outbreaks

Overview


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1996 SDWA Amendments

  • No Significant Changes to the Total Coliform Rule

  • Required Promulgation of Microbial/Disinfection Byproduct Regulations

    • IESWTR, LT1ESWTR, FBRR, LT2ESWTR

    • Stage 1 and 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rules

Overview


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6-Year Review Cycle

  • SDWA Requires Review of Existing Regulations

  • The Total Coliform Rule is Under Review

    • Schedule to Be Determined

Overview


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Types of Filtration:

  • Conventional Filtration

  • Direct Filtration

  • Slow Sand Filtration

  • Diatomaceous Earth Filtration

  • Alternative Filtration Technologies

Overview


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Requirements for Filtered Systems

  • Removal/Inactivation Requirements for Certain Pathogens

  • Residual Disinfectant Requirements

  • Turbidity Treatment Techniques

  • Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking

  • Sanitary Surveys

  • Covered Finished Reservoirs/Water Storage Facilities

  • Operator Certification

Overview


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Requirements for Unfiltered Systems

  • Inactivation Requirements for Certain Pathogens

  • Residual Disinfectant Requirements

  • Filtration Avoidance Criteria

  • Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking

  • Sanitary Surveys

  • Covered Finished Reservoirs/Water Storage Facilities

  • Operator Certification

Overview


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Q & A

Questions

Please send your questions & comments via the web console located on your bottom right.


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Overview of SWTR, IESWTR, and LT1ESWTR Requirements

Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems

Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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General Requirements

  • All Subpart H systems must comply with the following requirements:

    • Removal/inactivation requirements for viruses, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium

    • Residual disinfectant monitoring

    • Disinfection profiling and benchmarking

    • Sanitary surveys

    • Covered finished reservoirs/water storage facilities

    • Qualified operators

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Regulated Pathogens (Removal/Inactivation Requirements)

  • All subpart H systems must comply with the removal/inactivation requirements established for regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation requirements are as follows:       

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Regulated Pathogens (Removal/Inactivation Requirements)

  • All subpart H systems must comply with the removal/inactivation requirements established for regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation requirements are as follows:       

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Regulated Pathogens (Removal/Inactivation Requirements)

  • All subpart H systems must comply with the removal/inactivation requirements established for regulated pathogens. The removal/inactivation requirements are as follows:       

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Residual Disinfectant Monitoring Requirements

1 Residual monitored continuously. A state may allow systems serving 3,300 or fewer persons to take grab samples from 1-4 times per day, depending on system size.

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Residual Disinfectant Reporting Requirements

Report to state due within 10 days of the end of the following month. Remember to include:

When state was notified of events where residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

Lowest daily value for each day

A calculation of the percent of distribution residual samples that were undetectable

The date and duration when residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Additional Disinfectant Monitoring Requirements

Unfiltered Systems


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Additional Disinfectant Reporting Requirements

Report to state due within 10 days of the end of the following month. Remember to include:

As soon as possible, but no later than the end of the next business day. Remember to include:

Daily residual disinfectant concentration(s) and disinfectant contact time(s) used for calculating the CT value(s).

Instances where the residual disinfectant level entering the distribution system was < 0.2 mg/L

Unfiltered Systems


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Example System:

Takes 3 routine TCR samples

Uses Surface Water

Has a Conventional Filtration

In addition to taking one sample at the entry point to the distribution systems, what does this system need to do to comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?

Quiz #1: Disinfectant Residual

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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= Sample Location

Entry Point

Quiz #1: Disinfectant Residual

System needs to take:

3 disinfectant residual samples at the same time and place as the TCR sample

40 CFR 141.74 (b)(6)(i)

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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What does this system need to report in order to comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?

Daily residual disinfectant concentration(s) & disinfectant contact time(s) used for calculating the CT value(s)

Lowest daily value for each day

The date/duration when residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

When state was notified of events where residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

A calculation of the percent of distribution residual samples that were undetectable

All of the above

Quiz #2: Unfiltered System Reporting Requirements

Example Systems: Unfiltered, Surface Water system that serves 12,000 people

Unfiltered Systems


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What does this system need to report in order to comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?

All of the above

Daily residual disinfectant concentration(s) and disinfectant contact time(s) used for calculating the CT value(s).

A calculation of the percent of distribution residual samples that were undetectable

Lowest daily value for each day

The date and duration when residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

When state was notified of events where residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

Quiz #2: Unfiltered System Reporting Requirements

Example Systems: Unfiltered, Surface Water system that serves 12,000 people

Unfiltered Systems


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What does this system need to report in order to comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?

Lowest daily value for each day

The date and duration when residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

When state was notified of events where residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

A calculation of the percent of distribution residual samples that were undetectable

All of the above

Quiz #3: Filtered System Reporting Requirement

Example Systems: GWUDI systems that serves 4,500 people that uses slow sand filtration and measures HPC in lieu of distribution disinfectant residuals.

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration


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What does this system need to report in order to comply with the SWTRs residual disinfectant monitoring requirements?

All of the above

Lowest daily value for each day

A calculation of the percent of distribution residual samples that were undetectable

The date and duration when residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

When state was notified of events where residual disinfectant was <0.2 mg/L

Quiz #3: Filtered System Reporting Requirement

Example Systems: GWUDI systems that serves 4,500 people that uses slow sand filtration and measures HPC in lieu of distribution disinfectant residuals.

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration


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How long have you worked with the surface water rules (base your response on the average in the room)

  • 0-6 Months

  • 7-12 Months

  • 1-2 Years

  • 2-4 Years

  • 4+ Years


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Q & A

Questions

Please send your questions & comments via the web console located on your bottom right.


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Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking


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Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking

  • A “Snap-Shot”

  • Ensures Microbial Protection

  • 3-Step Process

    • Applicability Determination

    • Profiling

    • Benchmarking and Consultation

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Applies to: all Subpart H PWSs

Profiling requirements vary by system size

Disinfection benchmark must be calculated and State must be consulted if the system is considering:

Changes to the point of disinfection

Changes to the disinfecant(s) used

Changes to the disinfection process

Any other modification identified by the state.

40 CFR 141.172 and 141.530

Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Why Develop a Disinfection Profile and Benchmark?

  • A Regulatory Threshold to Be Achieved

  • The Threshold Is Often Exceeded

  • Assess Affects of Treatment Changes Upon Actual Inactivation

  • Consider:

    • Positive and Negative Impacts

    • Acute and Chronic Health Risks

    • Alternatives

  • Public Health Based Decision

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Why Develop a Disinfection Profile & Benchmark?

Lake

1

Potential Chlorination

Points

2

4

3

Filters

To Distribution

Flocculation

Basins

Sedimentation

Basin

Contact Basin

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Example Disinfection Profile

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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LT1ESWTR Profiler

  • www.LT1P.com


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Disinfection Profile and Benchmark

“Lessons Learned in the Process”

Alexander Vanegas

City of Manassas

June 2005


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EPA Sets Guidelines

  • The purpose of developing the disinfection profile and benchmark is to provide a basis for the water system and the state primacy agency to work together to assure that any changes in disinfection practices to meet new disinfection byproduct MCLs will not result in a significant reduction in the microbial protection provided by the system.


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EPA Sets Guidelines

  • In order to determine if profiling was necessary, water utilities were to conduct four quarters of "Applicability Monitoring" for TTHMs and HAAs. If the TTHM or HAA annual averages from the applicability monitoring exceeded 64 ppb or 48 ppb, respectively, the water system needed to prepare a disinfection profile.


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Crypto & Giardia Removal

  • All surface water systems that serve more than l0,000 people and are required to filter must achieve at least:

    • 2 log removal of Cryptosporidium or 99% removal based on treatment technique

    • 3 log removal of Giardia lamblia or 99.9% removal/inactivation based on treatment technique.

    • 4 log removal of viruses or 99.99% removal/inactivation based on treatment technique.


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Timeline of Problems

  • January 2002 - TTHM & HAA MCL reduced from 100ppb -80ppb respectively to 80-60 ppb.

  • November 2002 - Manganese violation (0.05 mg/L)

  • December 2002 - Exceeding TTHMs MCL and difficulty meeting TOC removal

  • December 2002 - Inverted application of Chlorine from heavy Pre-CL 2 in Rapid Mix and low concentration in clearwell to low Pre-CL 2 in Rapid Mix and higher concentration in clearwell.


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Timeline: Action Steps taken to Obviate the Situation

  • January 2003 - Switched coagulant from Aluminum Sulfate to Ferric Chloride to assist in TOC removal and reduce TTHMs.

  • October 2003 - Moved CL2 application point from rapid mix to pre-filter area after sedimentation basins.

  • January 2004 - Switched from Gaseous Chlorine to Sodium Hypochlorite


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Timeline: Action Steps taken to Obviate the Situation

  • September 2004 - Replaced GAC media

  • December 2004 - Lead & Copper exceeds limits requiring action. (15 ppb)

  • May 2005 - Switched to Ferric Sulfate.


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January 2003—Switched to Ferric Chloride

  • Switched from Alum

  • Common trend in industry

  • Assist with TOC removal and increased NOM removal

  • Implications


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October 2003—Chlorine Application

  • Moved Chlorine Application Point

  • Originally at Rapid Mix prior to Sedimentation

  • New location prior to filters after sedimentation.


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January 2004—Switch to NaOCL

  • Sodium hypochlorite, (NaOCl) offers an excellent alternative approach to disinfection. The active ingredient is the hypochlorite ion OCl—, which hydrolyzes to form hypochlorous acid (HOCl).


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January 2004—Switch to NaOCL

  • Often called liquid bleach, is considered to be the second cheapest disinfectant after bulk liquid chlorine gas. Commercially available as a 12.5 percent solution, it offers most of the advantages of chlorine gas–as a disinfectant, oxidizing agent and residual disinfectant, yet it does not have transportation or storage hazards to the extent present with chlorine gas.

  • Impetus driven by Vulnerability Assessment & reduction of potential hazard in area of high development.


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Disinfection Profile 2002


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Disinfection Profile 2003


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Disinfection Profile 2005


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Prior to Changes

2002

TTHMs - 97 ppb RAA

HAA5 - 35 ppb RAA

TOC removal

41% highest

After Changes

2004

TTHMs - 55 ppb RAA

HAA5 - 30 ppb RAA

TOC removal

64% highest

Comparison of Water Quality


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Is the person or persons responsible for implementing the surface water rules attending this training?

  • Yes

  • No

  • Not Sure.


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Q & A

Questions

Please send your questions & comments via the web console located on your bottom right.


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Other Requirements

Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems

Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Other Requirements

  • Sanitary Surveys

    • Community Water Systems:

      • Every 3 years

    • Noncommunity Water Systems:

      • Every 5 Years

  • Covered Finished Water Reservoirs/Water Storage Facilities

  • Certified Operator

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Filter Backwash Recycling Rule. (FBRR)

  • Purpose: To improve public health protection by assessing and changing, where needed, recycle practices for improved contaminant control, particularly microbial contaminants.

  • Applies to Subpart H conventional or direct filtration systems that:

    • Recycle spent filter backwash, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewaterting processes

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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FBRR Requirements

  • Return recycle flows through all unit processes at treatment system or alternative location approved by the states

  • Collecting and retaining recycle flow information

  • Completing all capital improvements associated with relocating recycle return location by June 8, 2006

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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PN Rule Requirements (Tier 1)

  • Exceedance of maximum turbidity level

    • Conventional and direct filtration

    • Slow sand, diatomaceous earth, and alternative filtration

    • Unfiltered

  • Waterborne disease outbreak

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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PN Rule Requirements (Tier 1)

  • Tier 1: Notify the state within 24 hours of the violation!

  • For turbidity, State will determine whether violation is Tier 1 or Tier 2

  • Notify customers within 24 hours if violation is Tier 1

  • Design communication to reach all users

  • Send a copy to the state within 10 days of notifying customers

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Violations Requiring Tier 2 PN

  • Turbidity violations

    • Single exceedance – As determined by the state

    • 95th percentile exceedance

  • Failure to perform profiling

  • Failure to consult with state prior to changing disinfection practices

  • Inactivation violations

  • > 5 percent undetectable distribution residuals

  • Failure to meet avoidance criteria

  • Failure to recycle to an appropriate location (FBRR)

  • Failure to complete capital improvements by required schedule (FBRR)

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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  • Notify customers within 30 days

  • Send a copy of PN to the state within 10 days of notifying customers

  • Tier 2: Notify the state within 48 hours of the violation!

PN Rule Requirements (Tier 2)

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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PN Rule Requirements (Tier 3)

  • All Monitoring and Reporting Violations

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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  • Notify customers within 12 months

  • Send a copy of PN to the state within 10 days of notifying customers

  • Notification may be included in CCR

PN Rule Requirements (Tier 3)

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Q & A

Questions

Please send your questions & comments via the web console located on your bottom right.


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Turbidity Requirements

Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems

Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative Filtration

Unfiltered Systems


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Turbidity

  • Combined Filter Effluent (CFE)

  • Individual Filter Effluent (IFE)

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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Conventional and Direct Filtration Systems

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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CFE Requirements

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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CFE Requirements

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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CFE Reporting

Report to state due within 10 days of the end of the following month. Remember to include:

Total number of CFE measurements

Date and Value of any CFE measurement that exceeded 1 NTU

Percentage of CFE measurements < 95th % limit

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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CFE Exceedance Reporting(Systems serving at least 10,000 people)

Report to state as soon as possible, but no later than the end of the next business day

Exceedance of 1 NTU

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Monitoring Requirements (Systems serving at least 10,000 people)

  • IFE must be monitored continuously every 15 minutes

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Follow-up Steps (Systems serving at least 10,000 people)

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Reporting – Conditions 1, 2, and 3

Report to state due within 10 days of the end of the following month. Remember to include:

Cause (if known) or report profile was produced

Date

Filter Number

Turbidity Value

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Reporting – Condition 4

Report to state due within 10 days of the end of the following month. Remember to include:

Schedule & conduct CPE. Report to state due within 90 days after exceedance:

Filter Number

Date

Turbidity Value

Submit CPE Report

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Monitoring Requirements (Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people)

  • IFE must be monitored continuously every 15 minutes

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Follow-up Steps (Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people)

* Exception if a CPE was done in the last 12 months

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Reporting – Condition 1

Report to state due within 10 days of the end of the following month. Remember to include:

Date

Filter Number

Cause (if known)

Turbidity Value

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Reporting – Condition 2

Report to state due within 10 days of the end of the following month (or within 14 days of filter self-assessment being triggered if triggered in the last 4 days of the month). Conduct filter self-assessment. Report:

Date the filter self-assessment was triggered

Date the filter self-assessment was completed

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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IFE Reporting – Condition 3

Report to State due within 10 days of the end of the following month. Schedule & Conduct CPE. Remember to include:

CPE report to State due within 120 days after exceedance:

Date CPE was triggered

Submit CPE Report

Conventional and Direct Filtration


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Case Studies: Great View

  • Filtered Surface Water System, Serving 15,000 People, Using Direct Filtration

    • Where, when, & how many CFE samples should this system take?

    • What is the limit for the CFE 95th% value?

    • What is the system required to report to the state within 10 days?

    • Where & how many IFE samples should this system take?

    • Two consecutive IFE measurements are >1.0 NTU What is the system required to do?

Case Study


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Where, when, & how many CFE samples should this system take?

  • One per year at the source

  • Five samples per month in the distribution system

  • At least one sample every 4 hours from the combined filter effluent


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Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000

Answer

  • Where, when, & how many CFE samples should this system take?

    • At least one sample every 4 hours from the combined filter effluent

Case Study


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What is the limit for the CFE 95th% value?

  • 1.2 mg/L

  • 1.0 NTU

  • <= 0.3 NTU

  • None of the above


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Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000

Answer

  • What is the limit for the CFE 95th% value?

    • <= 0.3 NTU

Case Study


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What is the system required to report to the state within 10 days?

  • Percentage of CFE measurements <= 95th% limit

  • Date and value of any CFE measurement that exceeded 1 NTU

  • Total number of CFE measurements

  • All of the above


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Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000

Answer

  • What is the system required to report to the state within 10 days?

    • All of the above

Case Study


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Where & how many IFE samples should this system take?

  • 1 sample at the entry point to the distribution system

  • 2 samples in the source water

  • Continuously monitor every 15 minutes from the individual filter effluent

  • At least every 4 hours at the entry point to the distribution system


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Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000

Answer

  • Where & how many IFE samples should this system take?

    • Continuously monitor every 15 minutes from the individual filter effluent

Case Study


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Two consecutive IFE measurements are >1.0 NTU. What is the system required to do?

  • If the cause cannot be determined, produce a filter profile within 7 days

  • Report filter number, turbidity value(s) and date by the 10th of the following month

  • Report the cause, or report that a filter profile has been completed, by the 10th of the following month,

  • All of the above


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Direct Filtration System, serving 15,000

Answer

  • Two consecutive measurements are >1.0 NTU. What is the system required to do?

    • All of the above.

Case Study


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Q & A

Questions

Please send your questions & comments via the web console located on your bottom right.


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Systems using Slow Sand, Diatomaceous Earth or Alternative Filtration

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration


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CFE Requirements

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration


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CFE Requirements

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration


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CFE Reporting

Report to state due within 10 days of the end of the following month. Remember to include:

Total number of monthly measurements

Date and value exceeding 5 NTU for slow sand and diatomaceous earth filtration or maximum level set by the state for alternative filtration

Number and percent of monthly measurements less then or equal to designated 95th percentile turbidity limits

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration


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CFE Exceedance Reporting

Report to state as soon as possible, but no later than the end of the next business day:

Exceedance of 5.0 NTU for slow sand and diatomaceous earth filtration or maximum level set by the state for alternative filtration

Slow Sand, Diatomaceous or Alternative Filtration


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Case Studies: Plain Valley

  • Filtered GWUDI System, Serving 300 People, Using Slow Sand Filtration

    • What is the reduced monitoring frequency that the state can set for this system?

    • What is the maximum CFE limit?

    • What is the system required to report to the state within 10 days?

    • What are the removal/inactivation requirements for Viruses, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium for this system?

    • How many IFE samples should this system take?

Case Study


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What is the reduced monitoring frequency that the state can set for this system?

  • At least every 8 hours

  • One sample per day

  • Continuous monitoring every 2 hours

  • Four samples per day


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GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand filtration

Answer

  • What is the reduced monitoring frequency that the state can set for this system?

    • One sample per day

Case Study


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What is the maximum CFE limit?

  • <= 1 NTU

  • 5 NTU

  • <= 0.3 NTU

  • None of the above


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GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand filtration

Answer

  • What is the maximum CFE limit?

    • 5 NTU

Case Study


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What is the system required to report to the state within 10 days?

  • Total number of monthly measurements

  • Number and percent less than or equal to designated 95% turbidity limits

  • Date and value exceeding 5 NTU

  • All of the above


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GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand filtration

Answer

  • What is the system required to report to the state within 10 days?

    • All of the above

Case Study


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What are the removal/inactivation requirements for Viruses, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium for this system?

  • Viruses - 4-log removal/inactivation, Giardia Lamblia - 3-log removal/inactivation, Cryptosporidium - 2-log removal

  • Viruses - 2-log removal/inactivation, Giardia Lamblia - 2-log removal/inactivation, Cryptosporidium - 3-log removal

  • Viruses - 3-log removal/inactivation, Giardia Lamblia - 4-log removal/inactivation, Cryptosporidium - 4-log removal


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GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand filtration

Answer

  • What are the removal/inactivation requirements for Viruses, Giardia Lamblia, and Cryptosporidium for this system?

    • Viruses - 4-log removal/inactivation, Giardia Lamblia - 3-log removal/inactivation, Cryptosporidium - 2-log removal

Case Study


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How many IFE samples should this system take?

  • At least every 4 hours

  • Continuous monitoring every 15 minutes

  • Not required

  • Once per day


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GWUDI System, serving 300 using slow sand filtration

Answer

  • How many IFE samples should this system take?

    • Not required.

Case Study


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Unfiltered Systems

Unfiltered Systems


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Filtration Avoidance Criteria

  • Source Water Conditions

    • Turbidity

    • Microbial quality

  • Inactivation and Disinfectant Residual

  • Watershed Control and Inspection

Unfiltered Systems


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Source Water Conditions (Turbidity)

Unfiltered Systems


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Source Water Conditions (Microbial Quality)

Unfiltered Systems


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Reporting Requirements

Report to state within 24 hours.

Turbidity exceedances of 5 NTU

Waterborne disease outbreaks

Unfiltered Systems


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Upcoming Regulations

  • Expected final in December 2005

    • Stage 2 DBPR

    • LT2ESWTR

Additional Resources


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LT2ESWTR Preview

  • Objective: Risk-based targeting approach to reduce exposure to Cryptosporidium in public water systems.

    • Target filtered systems with high source water Cryptosporidium levels where 99% (2-log) removal is not sufficient treatment

    • Target all unfiltered systems, which currently provide no treatment

  • Components of LT2ESWTR:

    • Filtered systems assigned to different “risk bins” based on results of source water Cryptosporidium monitoring

      • Additional Cryptosporidium treatment based on bin classification

      • “Microbial Toolbox” of options – flexibility in meeting additional treatment requirements


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LT2ESWTR Preview

  • Additional LT2ESWTR requirements:

    • Specific requirements for uncovered finished water reservoirs and unfiltered systems.

    • Second round of monitoring 6 years following initial bin assignment.

    • Disinfection profiling and benchmarking.


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Don’t Forget

Evaluation Form –

  • Available on the web at:

    • http://yosemite.epa.gov/ogwdw/ogwdwsurvey.nsf/surveyhome?openform

    • Enter code: survey07

  • Please email [email protected] if you have questions

Join us for Data Verification Webcast Training

Wednesday, July 27, 2005, 2 – 4 PM


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Q & A

Questions?

Please send your questions & comments via the web console located on your bottom right.


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Additional Resources


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Webcast Materials

  • Drinking Water Academy Web site: www.epa.gov/safewater/dwa.html

    • Webcast Presentation Slides

    • Written Q&A from Webcast

      • Will Be Emailed To All Registered Participants

Additional Resources


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Additional Resources

  • Quick Reference Guides:

    • IESWTR (EPA 816-F-01-011)

    • LT1ESWTR (EPA 816-F-02-001)

    • FBRR (EPA 816-F-01-019)

  • Technical guidance documents:

    • Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual (EPA 815-R-99-014)

    • Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Guidance Manual (EPA 815-R-99-013)

    • Enhanced Coagulation and Enhanced Precipitative Softening Guidance Manual (EPA 815-R-99-010)

Additional Resources


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Additional Resources

  • Technical guidance documents (continued):

    • Guidance Manual for Compliance with the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Turbidity Provisions (EPA 815-R-99-010)

    • Guidance Manual for Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Public Water Systems; Surface Water and Ground Water Under the Direct Influence (GWUDI) (EPA 815-R-99-016)

    • M/DBP Simultaneous Compliance Manual (EPA-815-R-99-015)

    • Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs Guidance Manual (EPA 815-R-99-011)

Additional Resources


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Additional Resources

  • Technical guidance documents (continued):

    • Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) Implementation Turbidity Provisions - Technical Guidance Manual (EPA 816-R-04-007)

    • Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Technical Guidance Manual (EPA 816-R-03-004)

    • Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Technical Guidance Manual (EPA 816-R-02-014)

    • Technical Fact Sheet: Final Filter Backwash Recycling Rule (EPA 815-F-01-001)

Additional Resources


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Additional Resources

  • Implementation guidance documents:

    • IESWTR Final Implementation Guidance (EPA 816-R-01-011)

    • LT1 Final Implementation Guidance (EPA 816-R-04-008)

    • FBRR Final Implementation Guidance (EPA 816-R-04-006)

    • IESWTR Plain English Guidance (EPA 816-R-01-014)

    • Profiling and Benchmarking Fact Sheet (EPA 816-F-98-017b)

    • IESWTR Fact Sheet (EPA 816-F-01-013)

Additional Resources


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EPA Resources Available

  • All documents available through

    • EPA’s Web site

      • http://www.epa.gov/safewater/

        OR

    • By calling the Safe Drinking Water Hotline

      • 1-800-426-4791

Additional Resources


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For More Questions

  • Send Your State’s SWTRs Questions or Situations to:

    • [email protected]

    • SWTRs Questions: Call your EPA Regional Office or Ed Moriarty, US EPA HQ 202-564-3864

Additional Resources


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Next Webcast: Data Verifications

  • July 27, 2005, 2 – 4 PM (EST)

    • For State Staff Only

      • Overview of the EPA Headquarters-sponsored DV process

      • Example of process using TCR and Stage 1 DBPR as examples

    • Send your DV questions via email to: [email protected]

Additional Resources


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Webcast Series

  • See Handout or DWA Calendar for Upcoming 2005 Webcasts

    • http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwa/calendar.html

  • Future Webcasts will:

    • Cover a Variety of Subjects and Rules

    • Be Held Last Wednesday of the Month from 2-4 PM (Eastern Time)

    • Have the Same Registration Process as for SWTRs

    • Will Open for Registration Six Weeks Prior to Each Webcast

Additional Resources


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