DEATH JUDGEMENT HEAVEN HELL ESCHATOLOGY. The Old Testament is more interested in how death first came about. Genesis 2-3 Death is punishment for disobeying God. Death as punishment for sin is not a physical death rather it is the inability to praise God Praising God is a sign of life
The Old Testament is
more interested in how death first came about.
Death is punishment for disobeying God
Death as punishment for sin is not a physical death rather it is the inability to praise God
Praising God is a sign of life
Inability to do so is death, even in life
Death is not simply a physical act but also a punishment for sin
Belief in Resurrection
Metaphors of Resurrection
God will revive us after three days; on the third day he will raise us up, to live in his presence
Scattered bones brought back to life by the breath of God, symbolizing the Israelite nation
Your dead shall live, their corpses shall rise/ awake and sing you who lie in the dust (26:19)
Development of thought about life beyond death
The problem of the suffering of the persecuted and righteous during the persecution of
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Resurrection of the members of the chosen people and of them alone,
the just to eternal life,
the others to everlasting shame
Belief in Resurrection
The Second book of Maccabees
The resurrection of the just on the last day
Bodily resurrection by God is the response to bodily destruction by the wicked
(7:9, 11, 14, 23; 14:46)
Affirms the intercession of the saints in heaven for the living on earth
Power of the living to offer prayer and sacrifice for the dead
The Book of Wisdom
First century BCE
The concept of psyche
(soul 1:11; 3:1)
The immortal spiritual principle in the human person as opposed to the perishable material body
Immortality (3:4; 4:1; 8:13, 17; 15:3)
and Incorruptibility (2:23; 6:18)
are God’s gifts to the righteous and the fruits of union to wisdom (6:18; 8:13, 17; 15:3)
It was the devils envy that brought sin into the world(2:24)
Reinterprets Genesis 3
Death is seen in the same way as traditional Jewish perspective but reinterpreted in the light of Jesus’ death and resurrection
Christ brings death a positive meaning
Without loosing its terror it can now result in gain
(Phil 1:21, Phil 1:23)
“I long to depart this life and be with Christ.”
Separation of the soul from the body
(Catechism 1005, 1016)
To rise with Christ, we must die with Christ:
"be away from the body and at home with the Lord."
In that "departure" which is death the soul is separated from the body.
It will be reunited with the body on the day of resurrection of the dead.
Catholicism sees the human person as intrinsically one reality
Death is the dissolution of the very human person not just the body
It is “I” who die
“Since the person is not the soul alone, but the body and soul essentially united,
death affects the person”
(International Theological Commission)
In and through our choices we shape our identity and destiny in a definitive and decisive way
Dying is the act by which a person freely gathers up or consummates his or her history of freedom in a final and definitive way
Though this gathering up occurs throughout life death is the persons last act in which their destiny is finally, definitively, irrevocably determined
Death is the privileged moment of human freedom in which the person has the power to make a decision that is of eternal validity
It is a lifelong task, since one truly dies in every moment of one’s life
Begun in Baptism
The Christian dies, is buried,
and rises sacramentally with Christ
A participation in Christ’s death it is a death to sin
Since physical death is punishment for sin, dying to sin is preparation for overcoming physical death
Faith and hope may lessen our fear of death, but they in no way remove it.
Even fortified by Sacraments and the prayers of the community of faith, our last act is still most often done in fear and trembling
Jesus faced his death in anguish to the point of sweating blood asking his father to remove the cup if he so willed.
Every action of yours, every thought,
should be those of one who expects to die before the day is out.
Death would have no great terrors for you if you had a quiet conscience.
Then why not keep clear of sin instead of running away from death?
If you aren't fit to face death today,
it's very unlikely you will be tomorrow
Our attitude about our neighbor
acceptance or refusal
of grace and divine love.
On the last day Jesus will say:
"Truly I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me."
Christ is Lord of eternal life.
Full right to pass definitive judgment on the works and hearts of men belongs to him as redeemer of the world.
He "acquired" this right by his cross.
The Father has given
"all judgment to the Son."
Yet the Son did not come to judge, but to save
and to give the life he has in himself.
By rejecting grace in this life,
One already judges oneself,
Receives according to one's works,
And can even condemn oneself for all eternity
By rejecting the Spirit of love.
All who die in God's grace and friendship, but are still imperfectly purified, are indeed assured of their eternal salvation; but after death they undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven.
The Church gives the name Purgatory to this final purification of the elect,
which is entirely different from the punishment of the damned
There is no “time” after death there is only eternity
Purgatory is a
“process of purification”
rather than a place
This process of purification is
more one of
maturation and spiritual growth than of
juridical expiation or punishment for sins
Death puts an end to human life as the time open to either accepting or rejecting the divine grace manifested in Christ.
The New Testament implicitly affirms that each will be rewarded immediately after death
(after purification if necessary)
in accordance with his works and faith.
The parable of the poor man Lazarus
The words of Christ on the cross to the good thief
Each man receives his eternal retribution in his immortal soul at the very moment of his death, in a particular judgment that
refers his life to Christ:
At the evening of life,
we shall be judged on our love.
The look He casts upon us will be our judge.
T. S. Elliot
The New Testament speaks of judgment primarily in its aspect of
the final encounter with Christ
in his second coming
at the General Resurrection
A final destiny of the soul
- a destiny which can be different for some than for others.
The resurrection of all the dead,
"of both the just and the unjust,"
will precede the Last Judgment.
This will be "the hour when
All who are in the tombs
will hear [the Son of man's] voice and come forth,
Those who have done good,
to the resurrection of life,
and those who have done evil,
to the resurrection of judgment.”
The Last Judgment will come when Christ returns in glory.
Only the Father knows the day and the hour; only he determines the moment of its coming.
Then through his Son Jesus Christ he will pronounce the final word on all history.
We shall know the ultimate meaning of:
the whole work of creation
the entire economy of salvation
the marvelous ways by which his Providence led everything towards its final end.
The Last Judgment will reveal that God's justice triumphs over all the injustices committed by his creatures and that God's love is stronger than death.
Dwelling place of God
1 Kgs 8:30; Ps 2:4; Mk 11:25; Mt 5:16; Lk 11:13; Rv 21:2
Dwelling place of the angels
Gn 21:17; Lk 2:15; Heb 12:22; Rv 1:4
Dwelling place of Christ
Mk 16:19; Acts 1:9-11; Eph 4:10; Heb 4:14
Dwelling place of the blessed
Mk 10:21; Phil 3:20; Heb 12:22-24
“The clean of heart will see God”
“We shall see Him as He is.”
1 John 3:2
“At present we see indistinctly, as in a mirror, but then face to face.
At present I know partially;
then I shall know fully as I am fully known.”
1 Cor 13:12
“Eye has not seen, ear has not heard, what God has ready for those who love him”
1 Cor 2:9 & Is 64:3
Heaven can not properly be defined
Lack of experience or data
Heaven is unique with nothing to compare
Scripture and theology tell us that the blessed see God face to face.
And because this vision is immediate and direct,
it is also exceedingly clear and distinct.
The blessed see God,
not merely according to the measure of His likeness imperfectly reflected in creation,
but they see Him as He is, after the manner of His own Being.
That the blessed see God is a dogma of faith, expressly defined by Benedict XII (1336):
“I was a-trembling because I’d got to decide forever betwixt two things, and I knowed it.
I studied for a minute, sort of holding my breath, and then says to myself,
‘All right, then,
I’ll go to Hell.’”
Hell is the absence of heaven
“The Outer Darkness”
Darkness is defined only negatively
as the absence of light
Evil is privation of good
If you believe Good and Evil are relative to each other,
then you cannot believe in the God of the Bible
God is perfectly good
We were designed for heaven
because of the designer
What the Old Testament Says
The wicked are punished
Is 50:11; 66:24; Jdt 16:17; Wis 4:19
Rise to condemnation and shame
Dn 12:2; 2 Mc 7:14
Their punishment is by fire (destruction)
Is 50:11; 66:24
Jesus did not teach explicitly about hell
He focused on the Kingdom of God
He did however threaten divine judgement and Gehenna
Place of fiery punishment
Mt 5:22, 30; 10:28;
Mt 11:23, 28; 18:9; 23:15, 33;
Mk 9:43, 45, 47;
THE HINNOM VALLEY
Hell is punishment
Punishment as for “natural law”
A law that is objective and absolute
The punishment is inherent to the action
Hell’s punishment is intrinsic to the mortal sin committed
If we eat the forbidden fruit of disobedience to God’s will,
divorcing our will and spirit from God’s,
the the inevitable result will be disaster and death,
for God is the source of all joy and life
Hell is pain
God is the sole source of all the joy inreality
If God is joy, hell must be pain
Pain can be thought of as external or internal
Internal pain is far worse than external pain
“Hell is the suffering of being unable to love.”
Loving is greater joy than being loved
Love is the greatest joy therefore there can be no greater pain than to not love
Hell is privation
Deprivation of God
We shut God out by our own choice
The desire to be happy without God is doomed to failure, pain and inevitable punishment
God is the only choice
Privation of God is the absence of all joy
It is not necessary explicitly to choose hell
We can rather choose Mortal Sin
We are separated from God not only when we refuse to love God but also when we refuse to love God’s children
1 Jn 3:14-15
Whoever does not love remains in death
We will be separated from him if we fail to meet the needs of the poor
“In all discussions of hell we should keep steadily before our eyes the possible damnation, not of our enemies, nor our friends, families, loved ones but of ourselves”
Honesty and Love are the reasons
we teach and believe in hell