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SCHOOL FACTORS. Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth Chapter 9. Activity. Work with a partner to answer the following question: How can the school environment contribute to academic and behavioral problems? Share responses with the class.

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School factors


Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders of Children and Youth

Chapter 9



  • Work with a partner to answer the following question:

  • How can the school environment contribute to academic and behavioral problems?

  • Share responses with the class.

School factors

  • “Changes in one element of the ecology have implications for the other elements.” (Kauffman, 2005)

  • How does school behavior impact behavior at home and in the larger community?



  • General intelligence

    • vs

  • Multiple intelligences

    • What do you think?

  • What about emotional intelligence?

  • Intelligence1


    • Measured by standard tests

    • Students w/ EBD average IQ in the low normal range

    • If the hypothetical distribution found in Fig. 9.1 is correct, we can expect greater than normal frequency of academic and social failure



    • Students with Autism

      • Continuum of intellectual abilities with most falling between 35 and 70

    • Students with Schizophrenia

      • Intelligence is typical of students with EBD

    • Both of these groups have problems with social understanding.



    • Implications:

      • IQ is the single best predictor of academic and social success.

    Academic achievement

    Academic Achievement

    • Assessed by standardized tests

    • Allow comparisons between normative and non-normative groups

    • Most students with EBD are academically deficient

      • Function one or more years below grade level

    School factors

    • Students with autism

    • Students with schizophrenia



    • Which comes first:

      • Low achievement

        • Or

  • Inappropriate behavior?

  • Social skills

    Social Skills

    • What are the important social skills in school?

    Social skills1

    Social Skills

    • Walker et al

      • Social Competencies:

        • Initiate and maintain relationships

        • Peer acceptance and school adjustment

        • Cope and adapt with larger social environment

    Social skills2

    Social Skills

    • Language competence

      • Ability to communicate verbally and nonverbally

    • Many students with EBD lack this basic skill

    • Pragmatics

    Predictive behavior

    Predictive Behavior

    • Low achieving students :

      • Behaviors requiring teacher intervention or control

      • Overly dependent on teacher

      • Difficulty paying attention

      • Upset under pressure

      • Sloppy, impulsive work

      • Low self-confidence

    School failure and later adjustment

    School Failure and Later Adjustment

    • Premorbid

      • School failure , negativism, antisocial behavior (boys)

      • Withdrawal, immaturity introversion (girls)

    • Without maladaptive behavior, school failure alone does not cause adult social failure

    School failure and later adjustment1

    School Failure and Later Adjustment

    • Conduct disorder

    • Age of onset

    School failure and later adjustment2

    School Failure and Later Adjustment

    • Low Intelligence

    • Poor Achievement

    • Antisocial behavior

      • The deadly triangle

  • What are the mitigating factors?

  • School s contribution to ebd

    School’s Contribution to EBD

    • Reciprocal relationship between demands of school and student’s social and academic abilities

    • How do students with all the advantages function in the school setting?

    • What are these “advantages” and how do they affect the student?

    School s contribution to ebd1

    School’s Contribution to EBD

    • Interaction between child’s temperament, parent’s child-rearing techniques and schools social and academic demands

    School s contribution to ebd2

    School’s Contribution to EBD

    • How do students with conduct disorders function in the school setting?

    • Compare what goes on in school with what goes on in their families.

    School s contribution to ebd3

    School’s Contribution to EBD

    • What are the ways in which schools may contribute to disordered behavior and academic failure?

    Insensitivity to individuality

    Insensitivity to individuality

    • Individual expectations

      • Teachers

      • Administrators

      • Peers

      • Importance of school climate and focus on academics

      • Importance of school-wide discipline

      • What about students’ interests???

    Inappropriate expectations

    Inappropriate Expectations

    • Labels

      • Stigma

      • Teachers’ expectations

        • Do they influence students’ behavior??

        • What about teachers’ behavior?

        • How do teachers’ attitudes about children with disruptive behaviors compare with their attitudes about withdrawn behaviors?

    Inappropriate expectations1

    Inappropriate Expectations

    • Necessity of labels

      • How we (adults and students) understand and use them is the critical issue.

    • Self-esteem

      • Research indicates that the damage to self-esteem is a result of the academic and behavioral problems, not the label.

    Classroom expectations

    Classroom Expectations

    • Kauffman and Braaten (2000)

      • “…alternative placements in which the expectations are adjusted to fit the students’ prior learning and abilities are essential if their education is to be appropriate.”

    • Simply expecting “normalcy” does not make it happen.

    Classroom expectations1

    Classroom Expectations

    • Expectations that are too high or too low.

    • Effects of very high expectations combined with very low rates of reward lead to depression.

    • What can a teacher reasonably expect???


    Inconsistent management of behavior

    Inconsistent Management of Behavior

    • Structure and predictability

    • Inconsistent discipline in the classroom

    • Inconsistent discipline at home

    Instruction in nonfunctional and irrelevant skills

    Instruction in Nonfunctional and Irrelevant Skills

    • How do we make instruction relevant for our students??

    • Extrinsic vs intrinsic rewards

    • Critical Skills

      • Academic

      • Social

    Instruction in nonfunctional and irrelevant skills1

    Instruction in Nonfunctional and Irrelevant Skills

    • TEACH

    • TEACH

    • TEACH

      • TEACH

    Destructive contingencies of reinforcement

    Destructive Contingencies of Reinforcement

    • Positive reinforcement for inappropriate behavior

    • Failure to positively reinforce appropriate behavior

    • Negative reinforcement for avoidance behaviors



    • Positive or negative reinforcement is a reward or consequence that makes a behavior more likely to occur.

      • Something you get is a positive reinforcer

      • Something you get out of is a negative reinforcer



    • Two major mistakes:

      • Misidentification

        • Criticism or reprimands intended to be negative reinforcers but actually positive reinforcers

        • Academics



    • Malcontingency

      • Misbehavior results in reinforcement, either positive or negative



    • Think of an example of positive reinforcement.

    • Think of an example of negative reinforcement.

    • Think of an example of misidentification.

    • Think of an example of malcontingency.



    • Positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior:

      • How much is enough?

    • Explain positive reinforcement for inappropriate behavior.

    • Reciprocal effects of behavior

    • Peer tutoring

    Who s watching the teacher

    Who’s watching the teacher????

    • Do as I say not as I do.

    Implications for educators

    Implications for Educators


    • Modulate the environment

    • Strategies: Table 9.1

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