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Divorced Beheaded Died Divorced Beheaded Survived. A Glance at The English Reformation. King Henry VIII.

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divorced beheaded died divorced beheaded survived

DivorcedBeheadedDiedDivorcedBeheadedSurvived

A Glance at

The English Reformation

king henry viii
King Henry VIII
  • Henry, the second son of King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, was born on 28 June 1491 at Greenwich Palace. After the death of his elder brother Arthur in 1502, Henry became heir to the English throne.
  • When Henry VII died in 1509, this popular eighteen-year-old prince, known for his love of hunting and dancing, became King Henry VIII. (VIII becomes King)
  • Soon after he obtained the papal dispensation required to allow him to marry his brother\'s widow, Catherine of Aragon.
  • In the first years of his reign Henry VIII effectively relied on Thomas Wolsey to rule for him, and by 1515 Henry had elevated himself to the highest role in government: Lord Chancellor.
background
Background
  • October 31, 1517 – Martin Luthurnails protest against Catholic Church on the Wittenberg church doors in Germany.
  • Doctrinal differences highlighted; works vs faith.
  • Many leaders across Europe adopt ideas; including John Calvin & John Knox.
  • Henry VIII: Labels Luthur a heretic, and in return, Catholic Church give him the title, FideiDefensor – the defender of the faith.
good catholic boy
Good Catholic Boy?
  • Henry believed he was ‘cursed’ for marrying his brother’s wife, Catherine – as she could not produce for him an heir.

Leviticus 20:21

"If a man shall take his brother\'s wife, it is an unclean thing...they shall be childless."

  • His solution?  Divorce!!
  • The problem: The Pope would not grant the divorce…
  • The Papacy, at the time, was largely influenced by Charles V of Spain – who was the nephew of Catherine!
what next
What next?
  • Henry, in 1532 using protestant doctrines which had newly emerged in Europe, created a schism in England. He created a new church (The Church of England) and proclaimed himself the leader of the church movement.
  • Over the coming years, Henry confiscated all Catholic church lands and dissolved the monastries in England – weakening all Catholic influence in his state.
legacy
Legacy:

Promotion of Individualism

  • The Reformation greatly encouraged the development of individualism. By asserting the right of an individual to have his own judgment and by simplifying ritual and organisation, the leaders of the Protestant Revolution liberated man from the clutches of the Church. However, it would be wrong to assume that Lutherans, Calvinists, and Anglicans really believed at that time in genuine religious freedom. They did not tolerate any one who disagreed with their own respective orthodoxies. However, they set a precedent in challenging the authority and beliefs of a universal church. In this way they promoted self-assertion in the religious sphere.
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Development of Education

  • The Reformation also gave an added momentum to the expansion of popular education. The Protestant leaders of that time usually favoured education. Calvin made Geneva an important centre of education. In Scotland John Knox set forth the ideal of ‘an elementary school for every city.’
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Promotion of Nationalism

  • The Reformation had a great impact on politics and society of Europe. The rising sentiments of nationalism contributed to the Reformation, and the Reformation in turn promoted nationalism. In every country Protestantism appealed to national sentiments and decried the ‘foreign’ interference in their national life. Wherever Protestantism spread, National Churches were established. Lutheranism became a national Christianity for many Germans and for the Scandinavian peoples; Calvinism for the Dutch and the Scots; Anglicanism for the English. Similarly, Catholicism underwent a change towards a partially nationalizing evolution.
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Royal Absolutism

  • The absolutist aspirations of the kings and princes were greatly advanced by the Reformation. The confiscation of Church lands, repudiation of the papal authority, and effective control over the local clergy enabled the rulers of the Protestant countries to enhance their political power. Even in Catholic countries, the kings took advantage of the difficulties encountered by the Popes and secured such concessions, which enabled them to increase their power at the expense of the church. As the divine right of the Popes was denied or flouted, the divine right of kings was asserted. Following the Reformation movement the absolutism of kings and princes became a fact in the political history of most of the European countries.
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Morals and Art

  • Reformation brought about other important changes as well. The religious upheaval was directed against the moral decline of the Church. As such the Reformation led to an emphasis on moral values. By their external conduct the Catholics and Protestants were expected to prove that their religion inculcated a higher moral standard than any other.
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Growth of Capitalism

  • As in the case of nationalism, the spirit of capitalism was the cause and consequence of Reformation. Princes and landlords, who were eager to get new sources of wealth, adopted the argument of Luther that the church property could be confiscated. Bankers, manufacturers and traders, who desired to make profit out of their business were happy with the interpretation of Calvin that the Catholic Church unjustly condemned the charging of interest. The Reformation crushed the power of the Church in the economic field, and created conditions for better economic development and growth of capitalism. Protestantism became popular in commercially and economically developed countries of the Baltic region in northern Europe.
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1905: Max Weber\'s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism.

Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Weber first observes a correlation between being Protestant and being involved in business, and declares his intent to explore religion as a potential cause of the modern economic conditions.

He argues that the modern spirit of capitalism sees profit as an end in itself, and pursuing profit as virtuous. Weber\'s goal is to understand the source of this spirit. Protestantism offers a concept of the worldly "calling," and gives worldly activity a religious character. While important, this alone cannot explain the need to pursue profit. One branch of Protestantism, Calvinism, does provide this explanation. Calvinists believe in predestination--that God has already determined who is saved and damned. As Calvinism developed, a deep psychological need for clues about whether one was actually saved arose, and Calvinists looked to their success in worldly activity for those clues. Thus, they came to value profit and material success as signs of God\'s favour.

Weber argues that this new attitude broke down the traditional economic system, paving the way for modern capitalism. However, once capitalism emerged, the Protestant values were no longer necessary, and their ethic took on a life of its own.

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